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Present Tense


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1.Present Indefinite or Present Simple Tense:-

Form:

(a)When the Subject is in the Third Person, Singular in number, ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added to the first form of the main verb. With all other persons, only the first form of the verb is used; ‘s’ or ‘es’ is not added to it.
(b)With third person singular subject, ‘does not’ or ‘doesn’t’ and in other cases ‘do not’ or ‘don’t’ is used in the negative sentences.
(c)When ‘does not’ or ‘don’t’ is used no ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added to the first form of verb.
(d)In interrogative sentences of this tense, ‘do’ or ‘does’ is used in the beginning of the sentence.

Uses of present Indefinite or Present Simple Tense:

(a)To express what is taking place at the present moment.
(b)To express a universal or eternal truth.
(c)To express a habitual action, a custom or a habit.
(d)To make a general statement.
(e)To describe a future action which is part of a settled programme.
(f)To give running commentary of events.
(g)To describe a past event in a vivid or dramatic manner.


2.Present Continuous Tense:-

Form :

(a)In affirmative sentences, ‘is’, ‘are’, or ‘am’ is used after the subject and ‘ing’ is added to the first form of verb.
(b)‘Is’ is used, when the subject is third person singular.
(c)‘Am’ is used with ‘I’ as the subject.
(d)‘Are’ is used with all other subjects.
(e)In negative sentences, ‘not’ is used after the auxiliary verb, we can also use ‘isn’t’ in place of ‘is not’ and ‘aren’t’ in place of ‘are not’.
(f)In interrogative sentences, ‘is’, ‘are’, or ‘am’ is used before the subject.

Uses of Present Continuous Tense:

(a)To denote an action which is taking place now and is incomplete at the time of speaking or writing.
(b)To denote an action which is to take place in the near future as part of settled programme.


3.Present Perfect Tense:

Form:

(a)In this tense some action has been completed in the present, quite recently.
(b)Third form of verb is used after ‘has’ or ‘have’.
(c)‘Has’ is used with third person singular object.
(d)‘Have’ is used with all other subjects.
(e)In negative sentences, ‘not’ is used after has/have.
(f)In interrogative sentences, ‘has’ or ‘have’ is used right in the beginning of the sentence.

Uses of Present Perfect Tense:

(a)To indicate an action which has just been completed.
(b)To describe a past experience.
(c)To describe an action the time which is not given.
(d)To describe an action which began in the past and is still going on.


4.Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

Form:

(a)In affirmative sentences of this tense, ‘has been’ or ‘have been’ is used after the subject and ‘ing’ is added to the first form of verb.
(b)In negative sentences, ‘not’ is used between ‘has/have’ and ‘been’.
(c)In interrogative sentences, ‘have/has’ is used right in the beginning of sentence, then comes the subject and ‘been’ comes after that.
(d)In negative-cum-interrogative sentences, ‘not’ is used immediately before ‘been’ when there is no neg contraction.
(e)‘Has’ is used with third person singular subjects and ‘have’ is used with all other subjects.
(f)‘For’ is used for period of time and ‘since’ is used for point of time.

Uses of Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

(a)To describe an action which began in the past and is still going on and may continue in the future.
(b)To stress the continuity of an action even though it has been completed.



Sample Usage

Examples:


1.Present Indefinite or Present Simple Tense:

(a)I know you very well.
(b)I do not know you very well
(c)Do I know you very well?
(d)Do I not know you very well?
(e)She reads a letter.
(f)The sun rises in the east.
(g)I get up early in the morning.
(h)Lata sings well.
(i)The annual examination commences on March 15.
(j)India wins the toss and gets ready to play.
(k)The door opens and a man with a gun enters the room.


2.Present Continuous Tense:

(a)The boys are teasing the dog.
(b)The boys are not teasing the dog.
(c)Are the boys teasing the dog?
(d)Are the boys not teasing the dogs?
(e)She is writing a letter.
(f)The Chief Guest is arriving in an hour.


3.Present Perfect Tense:

(a)The train has left for Bombay.
(b)The train has not left for Bombay.
(c)Has the train left for Bombay?
(d)Has the train not left for Bombay?
(e)The sun has set.
(f)I have seen this film several times.
(g)The man has died.
(h)I have known her since her childhood.


4.Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

(a)It has been raining since morning.
(b)It has not been raining since morning.
(c)Has it been raining since morning?
(d)Has it not been raining since morning?
(e)It has been raining heavily for the last one week.
(f)They have been basking in the sun all day.



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