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Pronoun


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A pronoun is a word which stands for a noun (the prefix ‘pro’ is Latin, meaning ‘for’). A pronoun is not a definite name of anything; its identity with some noun is determined by its position in a sentence. For example, he, she, I, we, this, each, someone, who, whom, their, himself, myself, any, both, either, other, etcetera.


Rules of Using Pronoun:

1.Each, every, everyone, everybody, anybody, nobody, either, neither, none are followed by verbs, pronouns and adjectives in singular.

2.When two or more singular nouns are joined by ‘or’, ‘either….or’, ‘neither…..nor’, the pronoun used in singular and the verb agrees with the second noun or pronoun.

3.‘Either’ and ‘neither’ are distributive pronouns and are not used for more than two objects. When there are more than two persons or things ‘any one’ or ‘none’ should be used.

4.A Reflexive pronoun is used after verbs like avail, enjoy, absent, avenge, and distinguish, etcetera.

5.When a pronoun follows ‘than’ or ‘as’, its case is determined by supplying the verb understood.

6.Personal pronouns are used for three persons:
(i)Person who is speaking e.g., I, we, myself, etcetera.
(ii)Person who are spoken to e.g., thou, you, thyself.
(iii)Persons spoken of e.g., he, she, it, himself, itself.

7.Reflexive pronouns are used for:
(i)To show that person does something to himself.
(ii)To lay emphasis on the pronoun.

8.Relative or Conjunctive pronouns such as who, which, whose, whom, etcetera, have their specific use.

9.A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.

10.When a pronoun refers to more than one pronoun differing in person it must be first person and plural in preference to second person and plural in preference to third person.

11.Pronoun of second person comes first then third person and last of all first person.

12.The words my, thy, his, her, its, our, you, there are possessive adjectives. They are used before the nouns with which they are joined.


Sample Usage

Examples:


Rule 1.

(a)Each person who comes here will have his own views.
(b)Nobody will be allowed to express his opinion.
(c)Nobody wishes to cut a sorry figure in life.

Rule 2.

(a)Kiran or Kamla must lend her book.
(b)Either Ram or Shyam has stolen my pen.

Rule 3.

(a)Neither of the two sisters was beautiful.
(b)Either of the two soldiers was awarded a medal.

Rule 4.

(a)You must avail yourself of this golden chance.
(b)They enjoyed themselves at the river.

Rule 5.
(a)She is taller than me. (Wrong)
She is taller than I (am). (Right)

Rule 7.

(a)I love my own poems.
(b)She laid herself down.
(c)He himself saw the thief.
(d)The building itself fell.

Rule 8.

(a)One who does so will be punished.
(b)He is the man whom we saw yesterday.
(c)The pen, whose nib was broken, was broken.

Rule 9.
(a)I am not one of those who betray their friends.
(b)One must do one’s duty.

Rule 10.

(a)You and I have done our work. (not your)
(b)One must do one’s duty. (not his)

Rule 11.
(a)You, she and I are to organize the show.

Rule 12.
For example, my house, your house, his pen, his purse etcetera.


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