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The Sentences-- Definition and Types


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The Sentence

We express our feelings and thoughts with the help of words. Not only that, the words must be put in a systematic order to get any sense out of it. Such a group of words having some complete sense is called a Sentence.

Now, look at the following Groups of words:
1. boy Raman an is intelligent.
2. walk go we morning a for everyday.
3. mother me interesting tells my stories.

Do the above groups of words make any sense? No, they don’t. So we cannot call them sentences. Now, let’s rearrange these groups of words as follows:

1. Raman is an intelligent boy.
2. We go for a morning walk everyday.
3. My mother tells me interesting stories.

They express complete sense. Therefore, they are called sentences.

Thus we see that:

• A sentence should contain a group of words.
• It should have some complete sense.

Based upon the above, we can derive at the definition of a sentence which is as follows:
A sentence is a group of words having complete sense.

Always remember the following things about a sentence

1. It should always begin with a Capital Letter.
2. It should have a verb and
3. It should end with a Full Stop (.), Mark of Interrogation (?) or a Mark of Exclamation (!).

Types of Sentences

We can broadly divide the sentences into the following five types:-

A. Assertive Sentence (Statement): These types of sentences make a statement or assertion. It tells us something about the subject. An Assertive Sentence can be either positive (affirmative) or negative in nature. In an Assertive sentence, the subject is mostly placed before the verb and a full stop (.) is used at the end.

See the examples:

(a) Affirmative Sentence:
1. She goes for a walk in the park every morning.
2. My brother lives in Mumbai.
3. Delhi is the capital of India.
4. The girl looks very beautiful in her new dress.
5. Your father is an architect.

(b) Negative Sentence:
1. I don’t take tea.
2. Seema doesn’t live near our house.
3. We do not go to school on Sunday.
4. We cannot live without water.
5. He is not very intelligent.

Note: - ‘No’ and ‘Not’ are always placed after a helping verb.

B. Interrogative Sentence—An interrogative sentence is used to ask a question. It can start either with:

1. a Helping Verb:

Examples:

1. Are you going to the market?
2. Have they seen your new house?
3. Did you complete your homework?
4. Will you help me?
5. Can I use your umbrella?

Or

2. a Question Word :-

Examples:

1. Where is my new shirt?
2. Who is knocking at the door?
3. What are you doing in the room?
4. When do you get up in the morning?
5. How has he reached here?

Remember:An interrogative sentence always ends with a mark of interrogation.(?).

C.Imperative Sentence: - An Imperative Sentence is one which expresses a command, request, advice or entreaty etc. Generally, it starts with a verb; however, if it is a request or entreaty (as you can see in sentences 1 and 5,) ‘kindly’ or ‘please’ is used before the verb. A Full Stop (.) is put at the end of an Imperative sentence.

Examples:

1.Kindly wait here for some time. (request)
2.Do not run in the sun. (advice)
3.Look at the blackboard. (order)
4.Take these medicines regularly. (advice)
5.Please call in a doctor. (entreaty)

Remember: The subject of an Imperative is always ‘you’ since we can directly say something only to someone who is present before us. However, the subject ‘you’ is understood and we do not use it in these sentences.

D. Exclamatory Sentence: An Exclamatory Sentence expresses a strong or sudden emotional feeling.

Examples:

1. How beautiful you look today!
2. What a clever girl she is!
3. What a lazy fellow you are!
4. Hurrah! We have won the match.
5. What a stormy day it was!

Remember: We use different words for expressing different types of emotions. Some common words of exclamations are as follows:

Hurrah! It expresses joy.
Alas! It expresses sadness.
Bravo! It expresses appreciation.

For expressing surprise, we start the sentence either with ‘How’ or ‘What’. We may or may not use a verb (according to the sense and situation) with a sentence beginning with ‘How’ or ‘What’.
Note the following examples:

1. How funny! (Sentence without a verb)
2. How funny it is! (Sentence with a verb)

E. Optative Sentence: Generally, an Optative Sentence expresses a prayer or wish. These sentences also end with a mark of exclamation (!) and the subject (you) is omitted.

Examples:

1. May her soul rest in peace!
2. May you live long!
3. May God bless you!
4. Would that I were the principal of our school!
5. May the villagers be happy and prosperous!

Note: Generally, an Optative Sentence starts with ‘May’ if we pray for something to God.


Sample Usage

As given above after every types


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