A nice question to ask. A well flower gets their color due to various pigments and chemical present in them. The red, blue or yellow all these colors in flowers are due to presence of anthocyanins, which are special pigment in flowers. Due to various reactions the color of these pigments changes. Chlorophyll is a chemical which provide the green color in leaves and other green parts. It is mainly responsible for providing the green color.
The main purpose of the color is attracting the insects, so that the process of pollination can occur. The process of pollination is responsible for reproduction in plants.
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Chlorophylls provide green color to plants as in green leafs . An electron excitation reaction in it do the job.
Similarly, carotenoids provide red/yellow to fruits as in carrots, mangoes, etc.
Note: Carotenoids are also known as Vitamin A forming pigments.
The colors we see are parts of the visible light that is seen more than the colors that are not showing up. Does that mean light really give color to objects?
Color of fruits and flowers is mainly due to the pigments and biochemical compounds like plastids present in them. Chlorophyll is the cause of green color in plants which we studied at secondary education level. This supports pollination. Pollination is the way plant fertilize or reproduce.
Chromoplast is responsible for color as you would have studied "chrome" in Latin means "Color". The color of flowers is doe to anthocyanin, a special type of pigment present in them which is responsible for their different viable and visible colors.
Chlorophyll pigment is green and due to this pigment plant color is green. this pigment reflect green color from light. Carotenoids is orange red color there are different types of this pigment. Anthocynins are in flower are also pigment in plant. In human melanin is pigment responsible for skin color. like this all pigments are responsible for color.
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Certain examples for this are as follows,
Chlorophylls provide green color to leafs and oyher plant parts.
Carotenoid leads to orange, red, yellow etc in mangoes, carrots and other vegetables.
Flavonoids provides purple, blue etc in berries, citrus fruits etc.
The seasonal variation and other factors like temperature are determines the production of these acids in plants.
The ripening of fruits is another wonderful phenomenon in the nature. This is occurred due to the presence of Ethylene gas which is one of the naturally occurring gases in plants.
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Chlorophylls provide green color to plants leaves and stem, flavonoids provides purple color to fruits and flowers, orange color due to the carotenoid pigment,red color due the combination of orange carotenoids with magenta flavonoids,blue to red colors are due to anthocyanins etc.
The major factor which decide the fruit and flower color are "genes" , not all fruits have same color and not all fruits have same gene for color for examples mango have different genes for yellowing and apple have different gene for reddish color.
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Let me explain simply...
The simple fundamental is LIGHT is the main reason for colour of all the objects. Every object in this world will absorb some colours and will re radiate some other colours. The colour which gets re radiated is the clolour of that object.
Example: If u see an apple aith colour green, It means that the light which is a mix of all the colours is falling on the apple. The apple is able to absorb all the colours but reflects the colour green, thats the reason you find that apple in the colour green. (If there is no reflection, you find it in colour BLACK, this is the reason you find things in colour black when its dark)
The ability of the flowers, or fruits or things to reflect colours comes from their chemical composition of outer layer and physical dimensions also.
Hope its clear... :)
The question is that "What is responsible for color of fruits and flowers" means what factors responsible for color in fruits and color not the why green looks green red looks red or any color looks so. So don't confuse with question this question is about chemical faster regarding not regarding light reflection principles.
If this question is related to light reflection then question must in that form " What are the actual color of fruits and flowers "
Color is due different chemicals found in different things like in plastic, paper, sweets, metals vegetables, fruits ,flowers etc.
I request to editors to verify the answers accurately " a wrong answer got cash credits demoralize the others for posting answers".
So any one either editor or question posting author must verify answers who is correct or who is wrong.