Generally the district administration is headed by an IAS officer designated as District Magistrate or District Collector or Deputy Commissioner or District Commissioner in different states. Their duties generally involve following -
1. Collection of land revenue, land assessment, land acquisition, distribution of agricultural loans etc.
2. Crisis and disaster management
3. Maintenance of law and order
4. Supervision of the police and jails and work of subordinate Executive magistracy
There are many such more which can be seen by googling.
In case of dereliction of duty, action is taken as per applicable service and conduct rules.
Though nomenclature of posts vary in different states, but the nature of duties and responsibilities are same.