|Author: Juana 16 Mar 2016 Member Level: Diamond Points : 5 (Rs 5) Voting Score: -1|
The most natural and easiest method for establishing paternity of a child is through trust. Only a woman can know who the real father of a child is, a man must have trust in his woman that the child she carries is his.
DNA test not only creates suspicion it also shows that the man is casting aspersions on the woman's character. Paternity test to establish whether a man is the father of the child is humiliating to his partner.
To conduct a DNA test the consent of the mother is essential and a court order is also necessary. The Indian legal system has something called the 'Access Theory' which means that a woman who gets pregnant when she is married and/or living with a man then that man is deemed to be the child's father, irrespective of whether he fathered the child or not, because of the premise that he had access to the woman and is therefore regarded as the father.
|Author: Venkiteswaran. 16 Mar 2016 Member Level: Diamond Points : 5 (Rs 5) Voting Score: -1|
Though it is a biological fact, paternity as known to others is the trust reposed on the mother. That is why the saying goes, maternity is a fact, paternity is a faith.
To doubt paternity is to doubt about the woman first. Hence it becomes imperative for her to prove the real father. Though we hope let there be no such embarrassing situations for the woman, child and the man- we get to see in the media such situations come up in judicial cases and other disputes. But most of them are either for getting inheritance and compensation or for breaking relationship quoting infidelity. Other than that such situations can occur due to torture and cruelty suffered in civil war and disturbed situations when mass tortures are inflicted.
As of now DNA test is the most matching for paternity test when there is a shortlist of probable men including one who is the biological father..
|Author: Mahesh 17 Mar 2016 Member Level: Gold Points : 4 (Rs 4) Voting Score: 0|
DNA tests are on the basis of the pattern matching better the parents and children. So they are more accurate because every living being shows the pattern match to that of father and mother.
Matching blood type never works. For example during the development of the child, it can have the blood type like mother or father. Some even have different blood type than father or mother. And this has nothing to do with the paternity test.
Once the child is born it shows the behavioral signs of father or mother. Depending which genes are stronger, the signs can be seen. Though this is not an indication of paternity but still a psychological sign that the kid growing up is like you or your spouse.
When you have suspicion of paternity then the trust is out of question. You are not going to simply accept things on the basis of trust. You have to understand that in such case you have no other way than doing the DNA test.
There are few other biological tests such as bone marrow being conducted to establish the paternity. And those tests are used in extreme rare case sickness so often not used as a paternity test. But they can be used.
Honestly there is no simple, cheap and natural test for establishing the paternity.
|Author: Kailash Kumar 18 Mar 2016 Member Level: Platinum Points : 2 (Rs 2) Voting Score: 0|
In developed countries like US, paternity tests are carried out during pregnancy also as determining biological relationship is considered important from various angles e.g. to establish legal and social benefits, social security and inheritance benefits. Such tests provide accurate medical history also of the child which gives additional insights to the health care professionals in managing the child's health.
Such paternity tests are carried out by Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity (NIPP) method which require analyzing the baby's DNA found naturally in the mother's bloodstream.
The other methods are Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS).
|Author: Farheen Khan 20 Apr 2016 Member Level: Gold Points : 10 (Rs 10) Voting Score: 0|
When it comes to science, there is absolutely no other method better or as accurate as DNA tests for establishing the biological parents of a child. Whether prenatal or post natal, all tests depend on analyzing DNA as DNA is the one thing we obtain unchanged from both of our parents.
In case of determining the maternal lineage of a child, mitochondrial testing can also be done, since mitochondrial genome is always passed on by the mother alone, therefore it can be back dated for many many generations.
Tests like blood group can't be used to confirm paternity or maternity, however in some cases they can be used to eliminate paternity or maternity. For ex. If a supposed mother has blood group O and supposed father has blood group AB, then the child can either have blood group A or blood group B. In case the child has blood group O, then the father is not his/her biological father. If the child has blood group AB, then the mother can't be his biological mother. However, in case the child does have either Type A or B, that is not a guarantee that those are his parents. Therefore, this test may only be useful in eliminating certain options rather than confirming them.
The option you would choose to determine paternity or maternity also depend on the reasons why you want to do it in the first place. In case of finding parents of children who got lost, or have been adopted, going the scientific way (DNA tests) is the surest and ideal way.
However, if it is just for mental satisfaction of a father or mother, then while there is no confirmed method, but you can look for certain visible genetic traits that are passed on. These include widow's peak in the hairline, the pinna of the ear being attached or separated, the color of eyes, size of big toe compared to second toe, flexibility of thumb joint, cleft chins, lactose tolerance, presence of dimples, color blindness. If the father has a Y linked genetic disease, then his sons will also always suffer from that disease. If the father has a X linked genetic disorder then his daughters will always be a carrier of that disorder. So depending on case to case, an informed judgement can be made but one can't expect it to be as accurate as a DNA test.