The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has dramatically risen in the last few decades and is on rise. And soon if no actions are taken to address it may take the status of being an epidemic. There are two major types of diabetes-
Type 1 Diabetes – Often develops in early childhood, young age or at any age. No or small amount of insulin is secreted by pancreases.
Type 2 Diabetes – In type 2 there is insulin resistance or deficiency. It is most common type and has varies risk factors
Guidelines for diabetes management and prevention are:
Early assessment of risk factors: Being overweight with BMI above 25, lack of physical activity, family history, belonging to certain race, increasing age, gestational pregnancy and other health conditions like hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, PCOS etc increases ones risk of developing type 2 diabetes. With early assessment of risk factors it is possible to prevent the development of diabetes through health eating habits, losing weight, maintaining healthy weight, being physically active and undergoing medical counseling. Blood screening tests like fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) give accurate idea of diabetes risks in patients who have impaired fasting glucose. People should start screening at age 45 and repeat testing every 3 years.
Maintain a balance between food, exercise, and medication: People with diabetes should: eat well-balance meals, take medication on time, get regular exercise and maintain a reasonable weight.
Diabetes medicine: Diabetic patient should take basic education regarding the dosage and side effects of the medicine. Wide range of drugs, alternative medicines, treatments and therapies are available in market. But medication must be taken strictly under the guidance of physician.
Nutrition: Patients should eat balanced meal rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fiber, vitamins and minerals. But important to reduce daily total fat and saturated fat intake. Keep a food record and never skip meals. Alcohol intake should be limited; it may cause adverse effects in patients taking insulin.
Exercise: Besides inducing weight loss, excersing helps to reduce stress, aids sleep, and improves insulin resistance as well.
Control and maintain blood glucose level: Diabetes is a chronic disease that can be controlled and prevented but not cured. In diabetic condition, maintaining the blood sugar levels in normal or near to the normal level decreases the risk of developing diabetic complications like cardiovascular disease, nerve, kidney, eye, foot damage, skin diseases etc.
Monitor blood glucose and health: Blood glucose screening should be done regularly on monthly basis to keep a control on blood glucose levels. Self monitoring kits can be used for this purpose. Laboratory test like estimated average glucose indicates the progress of diabetes control over 2- 3 months. It is equally important to monitor overall health by regularly testing for blood pressure, kidney, eye functioning, and cholesterol profiling
Patient education: Diabetic patient should undergo counseling and get education regarding diabetes, dos and don't in hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states, taking insulin injections, knowledge about side effects of medication etc.