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  • Category: Miscellaneous

    How did Mohenjodaro meet it's end?

    Termination of Mohenjodaro civilization, Causes affecting the downfall of Mohenjodaro and Harappa civilization.

    This question is for history experts. We all learnt in schools that Indus valley civilization was the mother of the Indian civilization. There were two great cities located along Indus valley namely-
    Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
    Harappa and Mohenjodaro are now in Pakistan. Strangely these cities were abandoned around 1900 BC. Causes of decline are unknown.
    These were highly developed cities with an excellent drainage system,multi-story buildings and community baths. They weren't barbarians as we imagined them.
    Some suggest that these cities were captured by Aryans.But my question is how an extremely developed city with scientists and warriors fell to a bunch of horse riders from Central Asia?
    They had advanced machinery and weapons too.
    As of natural causes these were earthquake prone areas. So it is safe to say earthquakes killed a few.
    Yet no earthquake is so huge that it can wipe out cities along with its citizens.
    Some suggest that frequent Indus floods killed them. For me that's very unlikely.
    These people had dams. They could stop floods and redirect them.
    None of these suggestions makes sense thereby.
    So I wanted to ask experts what led to fleeing and destruction of people and cities of Indus valley.
  • #137155
    Excavations in the year 1921 revealed the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Prior to that the Indus Valley civilization was fully unknown. Indus Valley expert like Gregory Possehl of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, USA and archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA have carried out extensive research in various facets of Indus Valley civilization. However, even they are not sure about the exact cause of vanishing of the Indus Valley as there is no technique available to know the same. Using carbon dating method, the age of the remanants etc. can be known, but presently no method is available to know the reasons of abandonment or annihilation of the valley.
    However since it was situated near Indus valley, it is likely that flooding destroyed the city.

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  • #137162
    An excellent question! The archaeologists and historians are still not sure about the exact reason of extinction of Indus Valley civilization including Mohenjodaro. However, they have mentioned various reasons for decline and destruction of this great civilization. The experts feel that combination of these reasons caused the downfall, instead of blaming one single reason. These reasons are mentioned below:-
    (a) Invasion from invaders on quick-moving horses.
    (b) Use of iron-made sharp weapons by these invaders.
    (c) Change of geographical conditions and onslaught of desert due to gradual decline of rainfall.
    (d) Repeated devastating floods of River Indus.
    (e) Natural disasters of very huge magnitude within a relatively short span of time.

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  • #137172
    There are mostly the speculative theories on how the civilization collpased. The most common theory is aryan invasion. So it's possible that this theory is being pushed without even considering other variables. Most common variables that have caused this -

    1. Floods of river indus
    2. Climate change
    3. Local savage invasions
    4. Earthquake burrying this region.
    5. Migration

    Most of these reasons are likely to be more accurate for the fall of city region going deserted. There are some other reasons too which are more accurate considering the stuff in the city remained intact.

  • #137230
    Most possible cause could be the climate change. Huge climatic changes were caused during 1500BC which wiped out bronze age civilisations. Not only Indus valley, but even other civilisations around the world were affected by this change. This theory seems to be most realistic than the one that suspects the Aryan invasion as the cause.

    There is no evidence to prove that the civilisation had a sudden fall. It could have been a gradual process. It could have been the result of several reasons together including the invasions, natural calamities and climatic changes.

    The decline of the trade could also have been the reason for the decline of the Mohenjodaro. The very sustenance of the community was threatened with downward trend with the trade and it might have caused large scale migrations.

    It should be noted that the Indus valley civilisation did not die all of a sudden. Several practices were carried forward. Some prime examples could be tools, housing styles and crop patterns. What vanished was the systematic city planning and such core features unique to Indus valley. They might have been replaced with some other methods that were less efficient. With the core feature being gone, historians treated it as the end of Indus Valley civilisation.

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