Brain and spinal cord are covered with membranes known as meninges which act as protective layers. When the fluid surrounding brain and spinal cord gets infected, result in inflammation of these protective layers. As a result, swelling develops which is known as meningitis. However, it is rare in occurrence.
7) Consequence of a drug reaction
9) Autoimmune disorders
10) Brain surgery
11) Systemic lupus erythematosus
Symptoms vary in relation to age and cause of meningitis. In certain cases, patient shows quick onset of signs and symptoms whereas in other cases, symptoms may take several days or even weeks to appear. Some of the symptoms of meningitis are:-
7) Sensitivity of eyes to light,
9) Rashes on skin surface,
11) Stiffness in neck,
Doctor checks area around head, throat, spine for easy signs of infections and inflammation.
Along with physical check up, certain tests are done. They are:-
1) CT Scan of chest,
2) CT Scan of head,
3) X rays of chest,
4) MR Scan of head,
5) Blood cultures,
6) Spinal tap,
7) Polymerase chain reaction amplification,
8) CSF analysis,
9) Urine test
1) Getting vaccinated against meningitis can prevent its occurrence.
2) Meningitis spreads through throat and respiratory secretions. Thus, one can protect oneself by not coming in contact with infected people and thus not share with them water bottles or drinking glasses. Also, sharing a kiss and other personal belongings like lip gloss, lip stick, tooth brush, spoons, cigarettes etc..... should be avoided.
3) Coughing and sneezing cause easy spread of meningitis. Thus, an infected person should keep a kerchief or wear a mouth mask so that spray does not go further resulting in spread of infection whereas others should maintain a little distance from them for their own protection.
4) Maintaining personal hygiene is very essential. Washing hands vigorously with hot water along with some sanitizer or soapy water after coming from outside or after every use of bathroom is highly recommendable. Both backs and fronts of palms along with fingers should be rinsed for at least 20 seconds for thorough cleansing.
5) Always use clean, dirt-free towels and napkins. Do not share them with anyone.
6) If one feels that they have accidentally come in contact with meningitis patient, they should immediately seek medical support. Antibiotics prescribed can reduce the risk of infection.
7) Boost your immune system by taking good care of it. Follow a healthy nutritious diet which includes lots of fruits, vegetables, sprouts, whole grains, proteins, dairy products, lean meat etc.....
8) Quit smoking.
9) Adequate rest is very essential.
1) Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4),
2) Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine,
3) Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4),
4) Serogroup B Meningococcal B
1) Immediate hospitalization,
2) Complete isolation of patient from others,
3) Intravenous antibiotics,
4) Antifungal agents,
5) Intravenous fluids,
6) Fluids intake in plenty to avoid dehydration,
7) Drugs to control pain and fever,
8) Bed rest,
9) Corticosteroids to reduce brain inflammation,
10) For seizures, anticonvulsants are given.