A government prescribes various duties and limitations or restrictions to the people under that government. The people ar to obey the rules and abide them. The State its enormous powers and might will be able to arbitrarily to curtail, restrict or withdraw any kind of natural freedom of its citizens.However a human beings have their natural rights which are essential for individual and development of society, there is a gurantee given by Indian Constitution that the government will not arbitrally take away or restrict certain human rights. These rights are very basic and essential in all normal times for smooth human life and progress. Hence they are called Fundamental Rights.
In the Indian Constitution the fundamental rights are mainly dealt with in Part III under Articles 12 to 35. The Fundamental rights guaranteed by constitution are categorised under six major heads and subdivided for more clarity.
The main broad category of fundamental rights are:1. Right to Equality, 2. Right to Freedom, 3.Right against Exploitataion, 4. Right to Freedom of Religion, 5.Cultural and Educational Rights, 6. Right to constitutional remedies.
Right to Equality:
Equality before Law
Non-discrimination on the basis of gender,religion,caste race.
Equality of opportunities in public employment
Abolition of untouchability.No discrimination by practicing untouchability and untouchability abolished and made an offence.
Abolition of titles. No conferring of titles by the state. titles. (Bharat Ratna, Padma awards, are not titles or this purpose).
Right to Freedom:
Right to freedom of speech and expression, freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms, freedom to move within territory of India. India, freedom to reside anywhere in India,freedom to practice any business, trade or profession. Right of freedom to life and person,Art.21A gives right to education for children 6 to 14 years, protection against arbitray arrest and detention.
Right against exploitation: Prohibition of child labour, prohibiting trafficking in human beings all come under this.
Rights to Freedom of religion. Rights to practice and propagate religion, and to manage religious affair.
Cultutal and educational rights: This guarantees rights to minorities to protect their culture and to establish and manage educational
Rights to constitutional remedies: to protect one's right by due judicial process as guaranteed in the constitution. This comes when any rights are curtailed arbitrarily by the state(government).