We have 23 pairs of chromosome and each chromosome bears lots of genes which codes for different characteristics for us. Among these 23 pairs, 22 pairs are known as Autosomes which are same (in terms of characteristic they code for) in both males and females and 23rd pair is known as sex chromosome which is different for both male and female.
So the physical characteristics are taken forward to the next generation by autosomes and the features like skin color, hair color, height, eye color, etc,. are coded by these chromosomes only.
When a child takes birth by the combination of chromosomes from both father and mother, the traits can be visible on any of them depending upon the dominating trait. It means, every gene as both the traits. For example- we have code for dark skin color as well as light skin color, but what is trait coding is of dominating code.
For example- a boy's father is tall and mother is of average height, it means mothers gene coding for average height is dominating and father's gene for good height is dominating. During fertilization, which ever gene gets combined and become dominating will decide the boy's height.
We know all these facts are scientifically established.
Living & Learning- simultaneous processes!