I would like to answer your questions in 3 parts. I hope it will clear your doubts regarding Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Major Differences between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
1. Lok Sabha consists of direct representatives elected by the people. Rajya Sabha consists of indirect representatives elected by the direct representatives (elected by the people in state assemblies) of state assemblies.
2. Lok Sabha is called as Lower House or the House of the People. Rajya Sabha is called as Upper House or the Council of States.
3. The maximum strength of Lok Sabha is 552. Out of 552, 530 are elected from the states, 20 are elected from the Union Territories and 2 from the Anglo-Indian community (nominated by the president). The maximum strength of Rajya Sabha is 250, out of which 238 are elected from states and union territories and 12 are nominated by the President of India.
4. The term of office for Lok Sabha is 5 years but Rajya Sabha is permanent.
5. Lok Sabha is presided by Speaker and Deputy Speaker. Rajya Sabha is presided by Vice-President of India. In the absence of Vice President, it will be presided by Deputy Speaker of Rajya Sabha.
Why is Rajya Sabha Called Permanent?
It is called permanent house because it never gets dissolved. 33.33% of Rajya Sabha members retire every 2 years and new members are elected. The term of office for Rajya Sabha members in 6 years.
Joint Session of Parliament
President calls for the joint session of parliament if there occurs a deadlock in the affairs of the houses. Usually, joint sessions of parliament are summoned to confirm the consensus between the houses. Conditions under which joint sessions were summoned are as follows:
1. If a bill is passed by one house and rejected by the other.
2. If a bill is amended in one of the houses and the other house disagree to the amendments.
3. If more than 6 months have elapsed from the date of the receipt of the bill by the other house without the bill being passed.
Minimum Age Limit
Lok Sabha - To be a member of Lok Sabha, a person has to be a minimum of 25 years old.
Rajya Sabha - To be a member of Rajya Sabha, a person has to be a minimum of 30 years old.
1. Lok Sabha is considered more powerful than Rajya Sabha as its members are directly elected by the people.
2. The current strength of Lok Sabha is 545 and Rajya Sabha is 245.
3. The strength of both the houses is allotted on the basis of population.
4. The 12 members elected by the president in the Rajya Sabha should have a prominent knowledge or practical experience from arts, literature, science and social service.