yes, it will certainly create problem in future. You have not mentioned what name is written in 10, 12 and ration card but I understand that there is name mismatch in certificate.
Let see if 10th and 12th both have same names or not if in both mark sheet your name is same and correct then you can easily go for the correction in ration card on the basis of both the mark sheet.
If both mark sheets have different names,then you have to contact your school principal and let him know. you have to apply online for the correction of name in mark sheet. You will have to charge some nominal fees for the same. For apply you need mark sheet's scanned copy, photocopy of scholar book, certificate of principal. On applying above procedure, you will get your new and correct mark sheet within 10-15 days. So go for correction.
Honesty is the best policy.