Accepting post-dated cheques as a form of security against money loaned is a traditional but not a foolproof system. The agreement between your father and his friend would be a verbal one based on word of honor or trust. Unfortunately, some people misuse it.
Any legal account holder is perfectly valid in asking the bank to 'Stop' payment of a particular cheque and the Bank authorities have to honor it. So, you cannot blame the bank or force them to change their stance.
Things to consider is, the size of the amount loaned by your father, is it accounted money or white source that has been drawn on a particular time frame related to the loan issued. If it is an accounted source, then you can think and explore legal options. if it is unaccounted money, then filing a legal case or complaint could backfire. Loaning money and recovering the dues needs patience and planning.
First, see if there are other common friends or family friends known to both, who can mediate an understanding and collect the dues in a phased manner.
It's similar to a game of who blinks first, you and your father need to be persistent in approaching this person. You can politely but firmly demand the dues in parts at a regular interval, visit their homes, their workplace, their social gatherings etc. Make sure that you do not interfere with women folk that can be used against you.
Many areas or localities have senior citizens or people with power and influence who often settle disputes in the neighborhood as part of social service or for a commission.
Some local grassroot officials like the corporator, tahsildar etc can help you out as then speak with an authority that you or your father cannot exercise.
If the amount is traceable to one of your bank accounts and you have no issues with IT, then you can file a case of fraud in the local police station. If non-legal measures fail, many send a letter via a lawyer and file a court case.