To get a teaching job in Government schools you must pass Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) or State Teacher Eligibility Test (STET). If you clear CTET you will work in a central government school and if you clear STET you will work in state government schools. In order to appear in these exams, the qualification required is a bachelor's degree with B.Ed degree as well. So without B.Ed, you are not eligible to get a job in government sector.
You can apply to private schools though. Although most private schools prefer a candidate holding B.Ed degree there are still chances for you to get the job. Note that this B.Ed degree is required for teaching higher classes above 5th standard. Since you love teaching I would suggest you get B.Ed degree as soon as possible. But if your motto is to become a teacher only, irrespective of the class/standard you can get the job by getting other degrees whose course duration may vary from 1 - 4 years.
Some of those courses are:
1. Nursery Teacher Training (NTT) - The course duration is one year and if you crack this you will be into nursery teaching. Minimum qualification is 50% in 10 +2.
2. Bachelor of Elementary Education (B.EL.ED) - This course aims at producing teachers for the elementary school. The course duration is 4 years (3 years theory + 1 year practical). The minimum eligibility is 50% in 10 + 2 in any stream.
3. Diploma in Elementary Education (D.EL.ED) - An alternative to B.EL.ED with same requirements but the duration of the course is 3 years.
If you clear B.Ed, you can also climb higher by pursuing the postgraduate teacher course (M.A) and you can teach 11th and 12th standard children as well. Other courses which can get you a teacher job are:
BTC (Basic Training Certificate)
DED (Diploma in Education)
ETE (Elementary Teacher Education)
JBT (Junior Basic Training)
PTC (Primary Teachers Certificate)
TTC (Teachers Training Certificate)
These are minor courses and have less scope than the major ones. Plan carefully and choose accordingly. If time permits, I would suggest you get the B.Ed degree and increases your chances of getting hired and work towards your passion i.e, teaching.
Dr. V. Shashikanth