Car batteries came into use from around 1920 and cars are provided with electric starters. The sealed battery was invented in 1971.
The first starting and charging systems were designed with a 6-volt and positive-ground systems keeping the vehicle's chassis connected to the positive battery terminal. Today, all road vehicles are using a negative ground system. The negative battery terminal is connected to the car's chassis.
Cars used a 6 V electrical system until the mid-1950s. The 6V system is changed to 12 V when bigger engines with higher compression ratios.
In the past, batteries required maintenance in the form of electrolyte refills. Modern batteries retain their fluid for the life of the battery. Absorbed glass mat (AGM) batteries are more capable of deep discharge, but they are costly
Batteries are typically made of six galvanic cells in a series circuit. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volts at full charge. Each cell of a lead storage battery consists of alternate plates of lead (cathode) and lead coated with lead dioxide (anode) immersed in an electrolyte of sulfuric acid solution.,
The main materials required are an outer shell, lead plates, Lead dioxide coated lead plates and sulfuric acid of required concentration.