The thread raised has certainly described the pertinent problems facing the country.
Let me first start by the problems mentioned by you. Before going to solutions we must delve upon the the understanding of the problems.
This problem is by no doubt a plaguing problem in our country. Leaders from Nehru to Modi have put in Lakhs of crores of Rupees from Government exchequer to bring people out of poverty. But still Poverty remains the biggest issue in domestic issues. The main problem is economists throughout the world have tried to understand it but have still not been able to reach a convincing consensus of "what is poverty?" and "who is poor?". Both marxist and liberal economist have tried to determine the cause with varied explanation. But both liberal and Marxist conclude that historical oppression is a major reason to it.
Coming to India Government has set several committees like Rangarajan, Tendulkar to determine the poverty. But each commite have failed to give any concrete results. Defining poverty in India is far more problematic than elsewhere.
Considering these difficulties the method chosen to bring people out of poverty is also very much complex. In government circles 2 popular solution is being suggested. The Bhagawathi economics has preferred a more liberal approach where by country must focus on increasing the production of natural resources thereby increasing wealth and bringing more people out of poverty. But Amartya Sen has slight left leaning by describing as poverty reduction by making people more acces to certain basic goods like "education, access to food and clothing".
Government of India has followed both approaches according to needs. While schemes like MGNEGA, NRLM. JNNURM etc. follow Sen economics and schemes like start up India, Jan Shan Yojana, garibh Kalyan abhiyan etc follow Bhagawathi economics.
But both have failed to give tangible results because in India poverty is very much linked to social causes without addressing social heriarchies in society poverty reduction is near to impossible. Gandhian economics, development of panchayat raj, can help to some extent.
This problem has risen "presently" due to transition nature of economy. Indian economy is being pushed by Government to become manufacturing oriented from service oriented. But in foreign countries automation is going on. The demand for goods is falling down. Unemployment has direct linkage to Maoism, millitancy. The iright approach must be specialisation, self reliance jobs, sustainable development and providing India specific social goods. The unemployment in agriculture is directly linked to Green revolution. It has changed the socio economic relationship between the tiller and land lord , marginal farmers . The solution lies in agricultural cooperatives, post harvest technologies at village level, and rural development. The manufacturing sector jobs can be improved by specialisation and human resource development.
India needs to increase research spending and link university with industry to develop high level jobs. Self reliance must be given precedence over self sufficiency.
Employment generation is not linked to growth in India which is a negative aspect. GDP must align with employment rate. Some non economic goods can be capitalised in tribal areas by tribal people with government held.
As millitancy is developmental problem in India solution to social evils stops millitancy. The security forces must depend more on local intelligence than field agents to effectively deal the maoism.
We cannot penalise reproduction. Reproductive rights is very basic to every human being. We can educate them and advise but never coerce. First population is not the actual problem. The reality is economic difference. When top 30 % people enjoy 60 % of GDP then the real problem is economic redistribution in effectiveness. This is clearly accounted by economic survey. If we Coerce, then the inverted pyramid population issues in countries like Japan may plague us which is more difficlut to solve as it requires automation and huge drain on resources.
Dr. Srinivasa Rao.
The uniform civil code concept cannot be implemented in India. India has region specific cultural variations were some cultural events may even look barbaric to some. E.g. Jallikattu. SC considers it barbaric but TN people worship it. We cannot have uniform law throughout our nation?
Reservation policy is a very powerful tool in social empowerment but many don't understand it clearly which become a problem. First in India reservation is for socio economic empowerment and not mere upliftment of economic disabilities. Still in rural India some group of people are not given acces to common goods like well, irrigation facilities. etc. It is not about money. Someone may have crores of rupees but when socially excluded his life becomes meaningless.
In India sc st reservation is for social upliftment mainly and obc reservation for economic disabilities.
I don't wish to go into details but this fundamental difference in our policy is from our constitution.
I may have missed many issues. But finally human problems has solutions and will power is needed.