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  • Category: Improve Your English

    What is the correct way to write the academic qualification of Ph.D.?

    When posting a job or an article on admissions, one of the eligibility criteria may be Ph.D. However, when I write Ph.D., with a dot after 'Ph' and a dot after 'D', the Grammarly tool indicates with a red line beneath it that it is incorrect. As per the tool, the correct way to write it is PhD with no dots at all.

    I am confused about this. May I know from members what is the correct way to write this qualification? Should it be -
    (a) Ph.D.
    or
    (b) PhD
    or
    (c) Ph.D
    or
    (d) PhD.

    What is the correct placement of the dots? Or is it the case that there should be no dots at all?
  • #647767
    Madam,
    According to my "Compact Oxford Reference Dictionary"costing Rs.695 with 990 pages, Doctor of Philosophy is written as PhD. Dictionary is the supreme authority to clear our doubts. Also I have two PhD qualified members at my home.

    @ PhD is the correct way of writing. What does your dictionary say?

    Would appreciate if you correct your thread title word Ph.D. as Doctor of Philosophy.

    No life without Sun

  • #647768
    What I have learned to write PhD without using a dot after h. But even in news papers it is written as Ph.D and that is accepted and read by us.
    K Mohan
    'Idhuvum Kadandhu Pogum "
    Even this challenging situation would ease

  • #647769
    The Little Oxford Dictionary which I have since school days shows it as Ph.D.

    Sun - no need to give irrelevant information about a dictionary's cost and the number of pages. Also, it is not necessary to put in all those @@.

    The title will remain since the query is about the abbreviation and not about the full form.

    When people come at you with their worst, you should come at them with your best (advice given to Selena Gomez by her mother, quoted in Time magazine.)

  • #647771
    Madam,
    I just gave the cost and pages to show the important and value of that Dictionary which is the Sixth impression in the year 2003. I always wish to elaborate things to earn a minimum of 1 point. I don't like to get Zero for my responses.

    I use @ to draw the attention of the readers point by point.

    By your Ph.D. abbreviation in the title, you are very sure about the abbreviation, which could be wrong. Hence I suggested to have the full form, and ask the members how the abbreviation should be written.

    The thread title should be " What is the correct way to write the abbreviation for Doctor of Philosophy?" I am too small to correct a big. At times, I feel big to check/correct others.

    Anyway, I will follow the ME's advice.

    Though a simple query regarding PhD, this thread helped me to earn 5 good points through a response and counter response. VMT

    No life without Sun

  • #647772
    PhD and Ph.D. are both correct. One should be consistent with one form within one write-up. There is a tendency nowadays to drop the dots, so as to avoid two extra strokes on the keyboard.

    By the way, Grammarly is not trustworthy as discussed earlier in the following thread - Are you using Grammarly? What are the the pros and cons of using Grammarly to improve English

    When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you listen, you may learn something new!

  • #647776
    As far as my knowledge goes it should be written as Ph.D . But now many are writing this as PhD. These two are accepted as the correct form of writing this qualification. But the Grammarly is accepting PhD only. If we write as Ph.D it is showing as a mistake.Ph.D is modernised as PhD.
    drrao
    always confident

  • #647777
    Madam Vandana,
    The Doctor of Philosophy (My son) residing with me has confirmed that Mr. Gypsy is correct with his writing. It can be written as PhD(with no dot anywhere) or Ph.D. (with dots before and after D). It cannot be written with a single dot as Ph.D or PhD.

    I have learned the correct way of writing a great abbreviation today.

    No life without Sun

  • #647782
    That means after reading the Sun response, what I have shared in the first post is right and correct.
    K Mohan
    'Idhuvum Kadandhu Pogum "
    Even this challenging situation would ease

  • #647786
    No, Mohan, you were partially correct. You were right about 'PhD' and were wrong about 'Ph.D'. 'Ph.D' is a wrong way of writing it. You did not put any dot after the capital D. Basically it should either be with two dots (one after 'h' and one after 'D') or without any dots at all. Even Dr Rao made the same mistake!
    When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you listen, you may learn something new!

  • #647787
    I remember, long back we were writing abbreviations separated by dots. That was the usual practice.

    With time, some of the abbreviations were written by people continuously so both the forms became acceptable. When a thing is used widely even the lexicographers admit it and it starts reflecting in dictionaries.

    Knowledge is power.

  • #647790
    I never use ' . ' after D. Many of colleagues also write the same way. Anyhow it is good that some information has come out. I stopped putting dots these days. I write as PhD only.
    drrao
    always confident

  • #647811
    Since other members have nicely analysed and put forth their views I'd like to compare PhD with other degrees. Their acronyms I mean. We write bachelor of technology as B.tech. Masters of science as M.Sc. So it is only natural that we will think Doctor of philosophy will be Ph.D. My first doubt is why is it even written as PhD when by following trend it should be DPh right? For this the popular answer is that PhD is a Latin abbrevation and not english. So the structure and order of letters are different. But a dot after Ph is almost universally accepted.

    Some abbrevations don't have periods. NASA, BBC, PS, ONGC etc.. If we notice the pattern we don't use periods for business organisations or commercial abbrevations. Periods in abbrevations stop you from spelling "U.S.A" as Uusaa. I believe that is the primary function of these periods.. to help pronunciation(spelling). As days go by we use some abbrevations quite a lot. Like the word E.T (extra terrestrial) now sometimes can be written without the period. Maybe thats what happened with PhD too as we started using the letter a lot.

    The stronger a light shines the darker are the shadows around it.

  • #647844
    I do not agree with Aditya on the point that some abbreviations ( like NASA, BBC, PS, ONGC) don't have periods. They used to have periods/dots (See the attachment - courtesy grammar-monster.com). For the sake of convenience and looks, there is a growing trend of not using periods/dots when the abbreviations are capitalised.
    When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you listen, you may learn something new!

    Delete Attachment

  • #647845
    Another screenshot (regarding N.A.S.A.) courtesy stackexchange.com
    When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you listen, you may learn something new!

    Delete Attachment

  • #647853
    Yes Gypsy, as I previously mentioned, we are talking about day to day usage of these words.

    These words(abbreviations) did have periods somewhere in the past. I wouldn't say they didn't. But as commercialisation increased, we preferred to remove those periods. By that logic F.B the abbreviation for Facebook should have a dot. But we use the word so often that we no longer require a dot.

    As you say, these abbreviations became so common that nowadays no one use periods. USB is also an example for this observation.

    The stronger a light shines the darker are the shadows around it.

  • #647900
    Aditya,

    You are changing tracks now. In your earlier response you said that some abbreviations don't have periods. like NASA, BBC, PS, ONGC etc. That's why I provided the screenshots to tell you that NASA, BBC did have periods in between the letters.

    Your words in #647811
    "Some abbrevations don't have periods. NASA, BBC, PS, ONGC etc.. If we notice the pattern we don't use periods for business organisations or commercial abbrevations. Periods in abbrevations stop you from spelling "U.S.A" as Uusaa."

    About the FB thing in your next/latest response, Facebook is a single word, so it cannot have a dot between 'F' & 'B' and cannot be written as 'F.B'.

    When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you listen, you may learn something new!

  • #647909
    Frankly, I always prefer to put the dots, whether it is Ph.D. or B.Tech. After typing, I somehow feel like as though it does not look good visually if I miss out on the dots, like as though the abbreviation has bare feet with no shoes! There is a sort of comfort level felt when the dots are firmly in place. So even if there is a growing trend not to put them, I will do so.

    Two interesting offshoots of this discussion-
    1. In response #647811 Aditya mentioned "PhD is a Latin abbreviation and not English. So the structure and order of letters are different."
    - A query with reference to this: I have seen D.Phil. mentioned as a qualification. Is this the exact same qualification as Ph.D.?

    2. In response #647844 Gypsy mentioned "For the sake of convenience and looks, there is a growing trend of not using periods/dots when the abbreviations are capitalised."
    - A query with reference to this: I thought that all abbreviations should be capitalised. Are there any which do not require capitalization?

    When people come at you with their worst, you should come at them with your best (advice given to Selena Gomez by her mother, quoted in Time magazine.)

  • #647912
    There are abbreviations which are not capitalised, such as

    e.g. - for example
    i.e. - in other words
    viz. - namely
    etc. - and so forth
    et al. - and other people
    ca. - approximately or circa
    a.m. - ante meridiem
    p.m. - post meridiem ......

    These are words from other languages, I think, Latin, They are not capitalised.

    When you talk, you are only repeating what you already know. But if you listen, you may learn something new!

  • #647928
    Oh, yes, those are very much abbreviations without capitalization. I was not thinking too clearly! What about acronyms? Is it the tule that all acronyms must be capitalized? For example, Aditya has written in response #647811, "We write bachelor of technology as B.tech". Should it not be B.Tech.? (perhaps it was a typo?).
    When people come at you with their worst, you should come at them with your best (advice given to Selena Gomez by her mother, quoted in Time magazine.)


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