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Story of birth of Kerala


Posted Date: 10 Feb 2009      Posted By:: N.Nandakumar kartha     Member Level: Gold    Member Rank: 1842     Points: 1   Responses: 16



As per the Hindu mythology, Kerala was created by Parasurama, by throwing his axe from GOKARN, near Karwar, Karnataka. The sea on the direction of the axe moved out and a strip of land was formed. Parasurama, assumed to be avatar of Vishnu was half Kshatriya and Half Bramin. There fore he was strong as well as yogi. (His ability to create a land from the sea cannot be questioned as it is said that when a person reach rajayoga stage he can do much more.)
Parasurama was doing it as repentance to his barbaric act of killing hundreds of Kshatriya as a revenge for killing his parents by king Kartyaveerarjuna.
In those days fight between Aryans and Dravidian were at its height. Parasurama wants to stop it once for all. Therefore he created a strip of land. He forcefully brought some of the Aryan family from Narmada basin and some Dravidian family from Tamilnadu. They are forced to live together as a community including marriage between both communities. (Onam as a matter of fact is remembrance of the King Mahabali who ruled Narmada basin.It was there Vamana pushed him down to Patal.)Parasurama then created diety called Sastha who is the son of both VISHNU & SHIVA around the Western Ghat section and BHAGAVATI along the coastal area. BHAGAVATHI is Saraswathi, Lekshmi& Kali in one. In the process both Aryans and Dravidians has to bow in front of SASTHA & BHAGAVATI. I shall write the sub stories later. This how Kerala is born with new language MALAYALAM with Sanscrit as its father and Tamil as its mother.
Good day to you all. with warm regards.




Responses

#57070    Author: Tara      Member Level: Gold      Member Rank: 1186     Date: 11/Feb/2009   Rating: 3 out of 53 out of 53 out of 5     Points: 3



Hi Nandakumar,

Very nice info about creation of Kerala(according to Hindu Mythology.

You have recently joined ISC and we all welcome you to this great learning and earning site. Please go through the new member FAQ before you start with.

The information given above could have been placed in resources section where you can get more points. Self wriiten articles can earn good points in resource section. You can also refer to the Book/website where you got this information.

All the best and keep posting.

Tara

Regards,
Tara


 
#57074    Author: syed      Member Level: Gold      Member Rank: 69     Date: 11/Feb/2009   Rating: 3 out of 53 out of 53 out of 5     Points: 3

Nice Information and a great piece of history, thanks for sharing that with us

“ Make them Feel that they have missed you, Make your Life in such a way that every one need’s to be With You – Saleem “


Spam Is Illegal, Please Don't Spam And Keep ISC Clean


 
#57247    Author: N.Nandakumar kartha      Member Level: Gold      Member Rank: 1842     Date: 11/Feb/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 5

Thank you so much welcoming me to ISC & for the appreciation and suggestions.My young friend, I am now 50 and practicing as management consultant. Prior to that I was sales Manager for AVERY INDIA LTD, for Karnataka region. During my thirty years a grat learning experience, through books and counseling with big people.I have traveled a lot Therefore I may find difficult to point out the exact source of information. Nevertheless they are true. My intention of joining ISC is to share what all the knowledge I have gained from my service, which might provide the youngsters more information on "some thing of every thing and every thing of something" I shall share every thing about Quality Management System, besides quotes on Quality, messages from religion and spirituality, Customer relation ship management,.. etc. Such information will add your credibility while you attend interviews and enhance your ability to sustain and improve in the organisation.




 
#57531    Author: Shilpa Bindlish      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 4466     Date: 12/Feb/2009   Rating: 3 out of 53 out of 53 out of 5     Points: 3

it is good to know something new. keep posting like articles.
thanks.


 
#57605    Author: kumaraguru      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 1554     Date: 12/Feb/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 3

Hi,
Thank you for your information regarding the formation of Kerala By the Sait Parasuram, the incornate of Lord Vishnu.

All Hindu religious legends are having full of thoughts and wonders for the creation of every thing in the world.

Let your forum be as a resource.

Try to post many resources and get your rewards.

kumaraguru,
ISCian.


 
#57830    Author: akash      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 0     Date: 13/Feb/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 6

First mention
The trench outside the St. Angelo's fort wall, to protect the fort from enemies.
Kingdom of Travancore
Part of History of Kerala
Travancore Kings
Rama Varma 1663-1672
Aditya Varma 1672-1677
Umayamma Rani‡ 1677-1684
Ravi Varma 1684-1718
Aditya Varma 1718-1719
Unni Kerala Varma 1719-1724
Rajah Rama Varma 1724-1729
Marthanda Varma 1729-1758
Dharma Raja 1758-1798
Balarama Varma 1798-1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi‡ 1810-1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi‡ 1815-1829
Swathi Thirunal 1829-1846
Uthram Thirunal 1846-1860
Ayilyam Thirunal 1860-1880
Visakham Thirunal 1880-1885
Moolam Thirunal 1885-1924
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi‡ 1924-1931
Chithira Thirunal 1931-1949

‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
Padmanabhapuram 1721-1795
Thiruvananthapuram 1795-1949
Palaces
Padmanabhapuram Palace
Kilimanoor palace
Kuthira Malika
Kowdiar Palace
edit

Kerala is first mentioned (as Keralaputra) in a 3rd-century-BC rock inscription left by the Mauryan emperor Asoka the Great.[1]

[edit] Mythological origins
Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna to part the seas and reveal Kerala.

There are myths concerning the origin of Kerala. One such myth is the creation of Kerala by Parasurama, a warrior sage. The Brahminical myth proclaims that Parasurama, an avatar of Mahavishnu, threw his battle axe into the sea. As a result, the land of Kerala arose and was reclaimed from the waters.[2]

Parasurama was the incarnation of Maha Vishnu. He was the sixth of the ten avatars (incarnation) of Vishnu. The word Parasu means 'axe' in Sanskrit and therefore the name Parasurama means 'Ram with Axe'. The aim of his birth was to deliver the world from the arrogant oppression of the ruling caste, the Kshatriyas. He killed all the male Kshatriyas on earth and filled five lakes with their blood. After destroying the Kshatriya kings, he approached assembly of learned men to find a way of penitence for his sins. He was advised that, to save his soul from damnation, he must hand over the lands he had conquered to the Brahmins. He did as they advised and sat in meditation at Gokarnam. There, Varuna -the God of the Oceans and Bhumidevi - Goddess of Earth blessed him. From Gokarnam he reached Kanyakumari and threw his axe northward across the ocean. The place where the axe landed was Kerala. It was 160 katam (an old measure) of land lying between Gokarnam and Kanyakumari. Puranas say that it was Parasuram who planted the 64 Brahmin families in Kerala, whom he brought down from the north in order to expiate his slaughter of the Kshatriyas. According to the puranas, Kerala is also known as Parasurama Kshetram, ie., 'The Land of Parasurama',as the land was reclaimed from sea by him.

This legend, however, may be a Brahmin appropriation of an earlier Chera legend where a Chera King, Velkezhu Kuttavan, otherwise known a Chen Kuttuvan flings his spear into the sea to claim land from it. [3] The myth of Parashurama is debatable as the legendary king Mahabali, under whose rule Kerala was the land of prosperity and happiness, was granted rule over hell (Patalam) by Vamana the avatar of Vishnu, who actually comes before the avatar of Parashurama according to the avatar stories of Hindu mythology.

One legend of Kerala even makes Parasurama a Pandya ruler.[4] In another legend, the Pandyas themselves are the manifestations of Parasurama. [5]P.N. Chopra writes, "Parasurama is deemed by the Keralites as the father of their national identity."[6] The Kollam Era is also known as "Parasurama-Sacam". [7] Travancore Rajas claim descent from Chera King Bhanu Bikram, who according to legend was placed on the thrown by Parasurama.[8] Scholar K. Narayanan Sivaraja Pillai mentions, "Even as the West Coast owes its very rudiments of civilized life to Parasurama...".[9] In the Keralolpatti, Parasurama is said to have selected goddess Durga (Kali) to be the guardian of the sea-shore of Kerala.[10] According to legend, Chera King Kuttuvan Chera (also called Kota Varman) once enraged, threw an into the sea, thereby causing it to retreat and the land to dry.[11] According to another legend, a Pandyan called "Vadimbalamba ninrapandyan" threw his spear into the sea, hereby causing the same effect.[12] There is another story of Ukkira Pandiyan obtaining a spear from the Sivan of Madura, and throwing it into the sea, causing the shore to retreat.[13] Tradition says that Parasurama minted gold coins called Rasi and that in Travancore, he sowed them and buried the surplus in Cairns.[14]

[edit] Early history
A Muniyara, dolmens erected by Neolithic tribesmen, in Marayoor.

The earliest written record mentioning Kerala is contained in the Sanskrit epic known as the Aitareya Aranyaka. Later, such figures as Katyayana (circa 4th century BC) and Patanjali (circa 2nd century BC) exhibited in their writings a casual familiarity with Kerala's geography. Megasthanes, the Greek Ambassador to the court of Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya (4th Century BC) mentions in his work Indica on many South Indian States, including Automela (probably Muziris), and a Pandian trade centre. Ancient Roman Natural philosopher Pliny the Elder mentions in his Naturalis Historia (N.H. 6.26) a Muziris (probably modern-day Kodungallur or Pattanam as India's first port of Importance. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelkunda (modern Neendakara) are now busy places".

Malayalam, Kerala's main native language, believed to be originated as an offshoot of Tamil, the principal native language of neighboring Tamil Nadu. Malayalam (Derived from the local words: mala(means Mountain) and aalam (means Kingdom)) as a composite phrase means the living/inhabitants of Mountain Kingdom. This phrase, which in earlier times implied the geographical location of the region, was later replaced by Kerala.Kerala and Tamil Nadu diverged into linguistically separate regions by the early 14th century. The ancient Chera empire, whose court language was Tamil, ruled Kerala from their capital at Vanchi Karuvur (modern Karur in Tamil Nadu). Kerala at that time was composed of two Koduntamizh (deviant Tamil) regions, Venadu (later called Travancore) and Kuttanadu (Malabar). Allied with the Pallavas, they continually warred against the neighbouring Chola and Pandya kingdoms. Until the Bhakti age, the Sangam Tamil Cheras of the Kongu Nadu region in Tamil Nadu controlled both these regions. History says that (recorded im Mackenzie records) a Chozha princess was married to the Chera of Karur and he got a dowry of 48,000 agriculturists from the Chozha country. These people were settled in the then forested region of Venadu and Kuttanadu and thus the first agricultural settlements arose in what is called Kerala today.

A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils and associated with the Kerala Nair lords empire and the development of Malayalam, subsequently evolved sometime during the 8th–14th centuries. Meanwhile, both Buddhism and Jainism reached Kerala in this early period. As in other parts of ancient India, Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Shaivite beliefs during the first five centuries. It was only after the Sangam period that Kerala saw large-scale immigration of Brahmins from the north. These influxes may have coincided during the Kalabhras, Rashtrakuta, Chalukya, Pallava and Hoysala invasions. By the 8th and 9th centuries, 2nd Chera kings inclined to Vaishnavism and some of them wrote great literary works in the stream of Vishnu Bhakthi. When Hinduism was revived by intellectuals like Shankara and by Bhakti movements all over India, Buddhism and Jainism merged into their mother religion.


 
#57875    Author: kumaraguru      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 1554     Date: 13/Feb/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 2

Dear aksh,

Thank you for dispalying this history. This will be useful to the students and ISCians, gave some geagraphical tips and educational intentions with monuments of ethic cultlural episodes.

Regards,
Kumaraguru,
ISCian


 
#58180    Author: Manigandan M      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 0     Date: 14/Feb/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 5

History of kerala

A Muniyara, dolmens erected by Neolithic tribesmen, in Marayoor.

The earliest written record mentioning Kerala is contained in the Sanskrit epic known as the Aitareya Aranyaka. Later, such figures as Katyayana (circa 4th century BC) and Patanjali (circa 2nd century BC) exhibited in their writings a casual familiarity with Kerala's geography. Megasthanes, the Greek Ambassador to the court of Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya (4th Century BC) mentions in his work Indica on many South Indian States, including Automela (probably Muziris), and a Pandian trade centre. Ancient Roman Natural philosopher Pliny the Elder mentions in his Naturalis Historia (N.H. 6.26) a Muziris (probably modern-day Kodungallur or Pattanam as India's first port of Importance. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelkunda (modern Neendakara) are now busy places".

Regards

Mani


 
#58181    Author: Manigandan M      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 0     Date: 15/Feb/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 6

Malayalam, Kerala's main native language, believed to be originated as an offshoot of Tamil, the principal native language of neighboring Tamil Nadu. Malayalam (Derived from the local words: mala(means Mountain) and aalam (means Kingdom)) as a composite phrase means the living/inhabitants of Mountain Kingdom. This phrase, which in earlier times implied the geographical location of the region, was later replaced by Kerala.Kerala and Tamil Nadu diverged into linguistically separate regions by the early 14th century. The ancient Chera empire, whose court language was Tamil, ruled Kerala from their capital at Vanchi Karuvur (modern Karur in Tamil Nadu). Kerala at that time was composed of two Koduntamizh (deviant Tamil) regions, Venadu (later called Travancore) and Kuttanadu (Malabar). Allied with the Pallavas, they continually warred against the neighbouring Chola and Pandya kingdoms. Until the Bhakti age, the Sangam Tamil Cheras of the Kongu Nadu region in Tamil Nadu controlled both these regions. History says that (recorded im Mackenzie records) a Chozha princess was married to the Chera of Karur and he got a dowry of 48,000 agriculturists from the Chozha country. These people were settled in the then forested region of Venadu and Kuttanadu and thus the first agricultural settlements arose in what is called Kerala today.

Regards

Mani


 
#65775    Author: Siraj CM      Member Level: Gold      Member Rank: 769     Date: 11/Mar/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 0

Hi,

Nice narration about kerala history,thanks.

.


 
#65794    Author: N.Nandakumar kartha      Member Level: Gold      Member Rank: 1842     Date: 11/Mar/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 4

Dear Akash, excellent piece of history. Now please tell me who was born first as per vishnu avatars. Vamana or Parasurama? The piece of story is from Narayaneeyam.There are many things untold to people of kerala. Narayaneeyam gives answer to all this. What you have written is from the pages of Kerala History. Kerala History has never discussed about the Mahabali Kingdom. Further more origination of ONAM festival is also remains unknown. Therefore lots of mistakes found in your message in relation to my story. You should have written in a separate thread.My story is taken from Narayaneeyam not kerala history pages.

 
#66253    Author: Anuroop Khare      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 2921     Date: 13/Mar/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 6

History of Kerala

First mention
Kerala is first mentioned (as Keralaputra) in a 3rd-century-BC rock inscription left by the Mauryan emperor Asoka the Great.
There are myths concerning the origin of Kerala. One such myth is the creation of Kerala by Parasurama, a warrior sage. The Brahminical myth proclaims that Parasurama, an avatar of Mahavishnu, threw his battle axe into the sea. As a result, the land of Kerala arose and was reclaimed from the waters.[2]

Parasurama was the incarnation of Maha Vishnu. He was the sixth of the ten avatars (incarnation) of Vishnu. The word Parasu means 'axe' in Sanskrit and therefore the name Parasurama means 'Ram with Axe'. The aim of his birth was to deliver the world from the arrogant oppression of the ruling caste, the Kshatriyas. He killed all the male Kshatriyas on earth and filled five lakes with their blood. After destroying the Kshatriya kings, he approached assembly of learned men to find a way of penitence for his sins. He was advised that, to save his soul from damnation, he must hand over the lands he had conquered to the Brahmins. He did as they advised and sat in meditation at Gokarnam. There, Varuna -the God of the Oceans and Bhumidevi - Goddess of Earth blessed him. From Gokarnam he reached Kanyakumari and threw his axe northward across the ocean. The place where the axe landed was Kerala. It was 160 katam (an old measure) of land lying between Gokarnam and Kanyakumari. Puranas say that it was Parasuram who planted the 64 Brahmin families in Kerala, whom he brought down from the north in order to expiate his slaughter of the Kshatriyas. According to the puranas, Kerala is also known as Parasurama Kshetram, ie., 'The Land of Parasurama',as the land was reclaimed from sea by him.

This legend, however, may be a Brahmin appropriation of an earlier Chera legend where a Chera King, Velkezhu Kuttavan, otherwise known a Chen Kuttuvan flings his spear into the sea to claim land from it. [3] The myth of Parashurama is debatable as the legendary king Mahabali, under whose rule Kerala was the land of prosperity and happiness, was granted rule over hell (Patalam) by Vamana the avatar of Vishnu, who actually comes before the avatar of Parashurama according to the avatar stories of Hindu mythology.

One legend of Kerala even makes Parasurama a Pandya ruler.[4] In another legend, the Pandyas themselves are the manifestations of Parasurama. [5]P.N. Chopra writes, "Parasurama is deemed by the Keralites as the father of their national identity."[6] The Kollam Era is also known as "Parasurama-Sacam". [7] Travancore Rajas claim descent from Chera King Bhanu Bikram, who according to legend was placed on the thrown by Parasurama.[8] Scholar K. Narayanan Sivaraja Pillai mentions, "Even as the West Coast owes its very rudiments of civilized life to Parasurama...".[9] In the Keralolpatti, Parasurama is said to have selected goddess Durga (Kali) to be the guardian of the sea-shore of Kerala.[10] According to legend, Chera King Kuttuvan Chera (also called Kota Varman) once enraged, threw an into the sea, thereby causing it to retreat and the land to dry.[11] According to another legend, a Pandyan called "Vadimbalamba ninrapandyan" threw his spear into the sea, hereby causing the same effect.[12] There is another story of Ukkira Pandiyan obtaining a spear from the Sivan of Madura, and throwing it into the sea, causing the shore to retreat.[13] Tradition says that Parasurama minted gold coins called Rasi and that in Travancore, he sowed them and buried the surplus in Cairns.

Early history
The earliest written record mentioning Kerala is contained in the Sanskrit epic known as the Aitareya Aranyaka. Later, such figures as Katyayana (circa 4th century BC) and Patanjali (circa 2nd century BC) exhibited in their writings a casual familiarity with Kerala's geography. Megasthanes, the Greek Ambassador to the court of Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya (4th Century BC) mentions in his work Indica on many South Indian States, including Automela (probably Muziris), and a Pandian trade centre. Ancient Roman Natural philosopher Pliny the Elder mentions in his Naturalis Historia (N.H. 6.26) a Muziris (probably modern-day Kodungallur or Pattanam as India's first port of Importance. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelkunda (modern Neendakara) are now busy places".

Malayalam, Kerala's main native language, believed to be originated as an offshoot of Tamil, the principal native language of neighboring Tamil Nadu. Malayalam (Derived from the local words: mala(means Mountain) and aalam (means Kingdom)) as a composite phrase means the living/inhabitants of Mountain Kingdom. This phrase, which in earlier times implied the geographical location of the region, was later replaced by Kerala.Kerala and Tamil Nadu diverged into linguistically separate regions by the early 14th century. The ancient Chera empire, whose court language was Tamil, ruled Kerala from their capital at Vanchi Karuvur (modern Karur in Tamil Nadu). Kerala at that time was composed of two Koduntamizh (deviant Tamil) regions, Venadu (later called Travancore) and Kuttanadu (Malabar). Allied with the Pallavas, they continually warred against the neighbouring Chola and Pandya kingdoms. Until the Bhakti age, the Sangam Tamil Cheras of the Kongu Nadu region in Tamil Nadu controlled both these regions. History says that (recorded im Mackenzie records) a Chozha princess was married to the Chera of Karur and he got a dowry of 48,000 agriculturists from the Chozha country. These people were settled in the then forested region of Venadu and Kuttanadu and thus the first agricultural settlements arose in what is called Kerala today.

A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils and associated with the Kerala Nair lords empire and the development of Malayalam, subsequently evolved sometime during the 8th–14th centuries. Meanwhile, both Buddhism and Jainism reached Kerala in this early period. As in other parts of ancient India, Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Shaivite beliefs during the first five centuries. It was only after the Sangam period that Kerala saw large-scale immigration of Brahmins from the north. These influxes may have coincided during the Kalabhras, Rashtrakuta, Chalukya, Pallava and Hoysala invasions. By the 8th and 9th centuries, 2nd Chera kings inclined to Vaishnavism and some of them wrote great literary works in the stream of Vishnu Bhakthi. When Hinduism was revived by intellectuals like Adi Shankara and by Bhakti movements all over India, Buddhism and Jainism merged into their mother religion.


 
#66254    Author: Anuroop Khare      Member Level: Silver      Member Rank: 2921     Date: 13/Mar/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 6

Overseas contact(kerala)

The significant presence of West Asians - primarily traders - on the Malabar coast has been recorded in many Roman[15] and Tamil[16] sources. They were encouraged to settle and set up trading outposts and factories by the local kings. Many migrations into Kerala were to escape religious and/or racial persecution. The Nasrani Mappila[17] and Muslim Mappila communities of today originate from these contacts. Mappila literally means groom. It could point to the origin of these communities as the result of West Asian families settling here and providing brides to trader West Asian grooms who in turn settled here as well. Others may have taken Indian wives. These practices over millennia resulted in the thriving mercantile Mappila communities of Kerala, their social privileges and status guaranteed by filial and trade links to their West Asian mercantile counterparts[17][18]. In the last centuries BC this region became famous among the Greeks and Romans for its spices (especially pepper)[19].

Brown Jews of Kerala claimed to be remnants of the Jews that left the northern Kingdom of Israel following the Assyrian invasion of 721 BCE. The white Jews were refugees from Spain following the promulgation of the Edict of Expulsion. Nasrani and some Eastern Christianity writings says Thomas the Apostle visited this region in 52 CE and preached christianity. The earliest known migration of Christians into Kerala is by a contingent of Jewish Nasranis led by Knai Thoma (Thomas of Cana) who arrived in 345 CE, resulting in the Knanaya community. Another well recorded (in the Tharisappally records) migration is from Syria in the 9th century CE. With the advent of Islam in West Asia the traders visiting Kerala's shores contained ever larger proportions of Muslims. Malik Ibn Dinar created the first Muslim settlement in Kerala in the 7th century CE. Arab Muslims eventually dominated the sea trade with Kerala until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 15th century CE. As the Muslim settlers gained strength clashes erupted between them and the Christian & Jewish settlers in the 9th century CE. This resulted in Muslim control of trading centres and the latter communities scattering to places such as Angamaly and others further south.

Colonial
Vasco da Gama's voyage to Kerala from Portugal in 1498 was largely motivated by Portuguese determination to break the Arabs' control over trade of spices grown in Kerala. The spice trade with the Middle East pre-dates Islam. Da Gama established India's first Portuguese fortress at Cochin (Kochi) in 1503 and, taking advantage of rivalry between the royal families of Calicut and Cochin, ended the Arab monopoly. Conflicts between Calicut and Cochin, however, provided an opportunity for the Dutch to come in and finally expel the Roman Catholic Portuguese from their forts.

The Dutch were, in turn, routed by the Nairs of Travancore (Thiruvithamcoore) ruler Marthanda Varma at the Battle of Kulachal in 1741. Hyder Ali of Mysore conquered northern Kerala in the 18th century, capturing Kozhikode in 1766. Hyder Ali and his successor, Tipu Sultan, (but Nairs under the capable Diwan of Travancoore Raja Keshavadas (Keshava pillai Diwanji) defeated Tippu near Aluva ) came into conflict with the British, and the four Anglo-Mysore wars were fought across southern India in the latter half of the 18th century. Tipu Sultan ceded Malabar District to the British in 1792, and South Kanara, which included present-day Kasargod District, in 1799. The British concluded treaties of subsidiary alliance with the rulers of Cochin (1791) and Travancore (1795), and they became princely states of British India, maintaining local autonomy in return for a fixed annual tribute to the British. Malabar and South Kanara districts were part of British India's Madras Presidency.

Organised expressions of discontent with British rule were relatively infrequent in Kerala. Uprisings of note include the rebellion by Pazhassi Raja, Velu Thampi Dalawa, and the Punnapra-Vayalar revolt of 1946. Mass protests were mainly directed at established social evils such as untouchability. The non-violent and largely peaceful Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was instrumental in securing entry to the public roads adjacent to the Vaikom temple for people belonging to backward castes. In 1936, Sree Chithira Thirunal Balaramavarma The respected Maharaja, ruler of Travancore issued the Temple Entry Proclamation, declaring the temples of his kingdom open to all Hindu worshippers, irrespective of caste.

Modern post-colonial

After India's independence in 1947, the princely states of Travancore and Kochi were merged to form the province (after 1950 a state) of Travancore-Cochin on July 1, 1949. Madras Presidency became India's Madras State.

The state of Kerala was created on November 1, 1956 when Malabar District was merged with Tranvancore-Cochin state and Kasargod taluk of South Kanara District to form the State of Kerala, based on the recommendations of the State Reorganisation Commission set up by the Government of India.[21] Elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held in 1957; this resulted in the formation of a communist-led government[21] headed by E.M.S. Namboodiripad. Many Indians consider this the first democratically elected communist government[22] in the world; however, both San Marino (in 1948) and Guyana (in 1953) had elected communists to power years earlier. Radical reforms introduced by the Namboodiripad government in favour of farmers and labourers helped change, to a great extent, the iniquitous social order that had prevailed in Kerala for centuries.


 
#66341    Author: Cyril      Member Level: Bronze      Member Rank: 0     Date: 13/Mar/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 1

Wow!

Anuroop Khare, you rock.

How do know all this information?

What do you do?


 
#71786    Author: Shivam       Member Level: Bronze      Member Rank: 6311     Date: 31/Mar/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 6

A Muniyara, dolmens erected by Neolithic tribesmen, in Marayoor.

The earliest written record mentioning Kerala is contained in the Sanskrit epic known as the Aitareya Aranyaka. Later, such figures as Katyayana (circa 4th century BC) and Patanjali (circa 2nd century BC) exhibited in their writings a casual familiarity with Kerala's geography. Megasthanes, the Greek Ambassador to the court of Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya (4th Century BC) mentions in his work Indica on many South Indian States, including Automela (probably Muziris), and a Pandian trade centre. Ancient Roman Natural philosopher Pliny the Elder mentions in his Naturalis Historia (N.H. 6.26) a Muziris (probably modern-day Kodungallur or Pattanam as India's first port of Importance. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelkunda (modern Neendakara) are now busy places".

Malayalam, Kerala's main native language, believed to be originated as an offshoot of Tamil, the principal native language of neighboring Tamil Nadu. Malayalam (Derived from the local words: mala(means Mountain) and aalam (means Kingdom)) as a composite phrase means the living/inhabitants of Mountain Kingdom. This phrase, which in earlier times implied the geographical location of the region, was later replaced by Kerala.Kerala and Tamil Nadu diverged into linguistically separate regions by the early 14th century. The ancient Chera empire, whose court language was Tamil, ruled Kerala from their capital at Vanchi Karuvur (modern Karur in Tamil Nadu). Kerala at that time was composed of two Koduntamizh (deviant Tamil) regions, Venadu (later called Travancore) and Kuttanadu (Malabar). Allied with the Pallavas, they continually warred against the neighbouring Chola and Pandya kingdoms. Until the Bhakti age, the Sangam Tamil Cheras of the Kongu Nadu region in Tamil Nadu controlled both these regions. History says that (recorded im Mackenzie records) a Chozha princess was married to the Chera of Karur and he got a dowry of 48,000 agriculturists from the Chozha country. These people were settled in the then forested region of Venadu and Kuttanadu and thus the first agricultural settlements arose in what is called Kerala today.

A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils and associated with the Kerala Nair lords empire and the development of Malayalam, subsequently evolved sometime during the 8th–14th centuries. Meanwhile, both Buddhism and Jainism reached Kerala in this early period. As in other parts of ancient India, Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Shaivite beliefs during the first five centuries. It was only after the Sangam period that Kerala saw large-scale immigration of Brahmins from the north. These influxes may have coincided during the Kalabhras, Rashtrakuta, Chalukya, Pallava and Hoysala invasions. By the 8th and 9th centuries, 2nd Chera kings inclined to Vaishnavism and some of them wrote great literary works in the stream of Vishnu Bhakthi. When Hinduism was revived by intellectuals like Shankara and by Bhakti movements all over India, Buddhism and Jainism merged into their mother religion.


 
#74133    Author: sushenpai      Member Level: Gold      Member Rank: 0     Date: 09/Apr/2009   Rating: 2 out of 52 out of 5     Points: 6

hi friend,
It is not certain if the region was inhabited during Neolithic times. However, there is evidence of the emergence of prehistoric pottery and granite burial monuments in the form of megalithic tombs in the 10th century BC; they resemble their counterparts in Western Europe and other parts of Asia. These are thought to be produced by speakers of a proto-Tamil language. Kerala and Tamil Nadu once shared a common language, ethnicity and culture; this common area was known as Tamilakam.
According to legend, Kerala was an Asura-ruled kingdom under Mahabali. Onam, the state-wide festival of Kerala, is dedicated to Maveli's memory. Another legend has Parasurama, an avatar of Mahavishnu, throwing his battle axe into the sea; from those waters, Kerala arose.

The ancient Cheras, whose mother tongue and court language was ancient Tamil, ruled Kerala from their capital at Vanchi. They were constantly at war with the neighbouring Chola and Pandya kingdoms. A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils and associated with the second Chera empire, became linguistically separate under the Kulasekhara dynasty (c. 800–1102). By the beginning of the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulasekhara of Venad established a short-lived supremacy over southern India. After his death, Kerala became a conglomeration of warring chieftaincies, among which the most important were Calicut in the north and Venad in the south.

The Chera kings' dependence on trade meant that merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.:192–195, 303–307 The west Asian-semitic Jewish, Christian, and Muslim immigrants established Nasrani Mappila, Juda Mappila and Muslim Mappila communities.The Jews first arrived in Kerala in 573 BC.The works of scholars and Eastern Christian writings state that Thomas the Apostle visited Muziris in Kerala in 52 AD to proselytize amongst Kerala's Jewish settlements.

However, the first verifiable migration of Jewish-Nasrani families to Kerala is of the arrival of Knanai Thoma in 345 AD.Muslim merchants (Malik ibn Dinar) settled in Kerala by the 8th century AD and introduced Islam. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in 1498, the Portuguese gained control of the lucrative pepper trade by subduing Keralite communities and commerce.


 
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