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Ernakulam District (Kerala)
Posted Date: 12 Jan 2009 Posted By: Tony John Member Level: Gold Points: 1
|Author: T.M.Sankaran 21 Jul 2009 Member Level: Gold Points: 25 (Rs 20)|
A Brief History
The present Ernakulam district has a unique history relating to the three States or erstwhile kingdoms, Travancore (Thiruvithancore), Cochin (Kochi) and Malabar (a district under the Madras State), which were later amalgamated to become the present Kerala. Ernakulam district contains some portions of all these three States. Kochi and Kanayannur Taluks formed part of Cochin kingdom, while Edappally, Paravur,etc., came under the Travancore (Venadu) Kingdom. Fort Cochin area was under Malabar District (earlier under British Rule).
The Synagogue and the Dutch Palace at Mattanchery, Christian churches at Malayattur, Edappally, Narakkal, Udayamperoor and Chendamangalam, temples at Thrippunithura, Thrikkakara, Ernakulam, Thrikkariyur, Udayamperoor and Kalady, the mosques at Kanjiramattom, Edappally and Aluva, and the centres of worship of Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Gowdasaraswathas, etc. are living testimonies for the cosmopolitan living and religious tolerances among the people in those days. The Kings even invited people belonging to other religions to come and settle in Kochi area in connection with the development of trade and industries. The ancestors of the Jews were migrated from Jerusalem in 72 A.D. and even now there are a few Jewish families in Kochi.
The capital of Kochi Kingdom, known as 'Perumpadappu Swarupam' was at Thrippunithura. The Kingdom is believed to have come into existence in the beginning of 15th century AD. Portuguese and Dutch had at times tried to establish their sovereignty in this State after 16th century, but was resisted by the King. Later there were attacks from Samoothiri (Zamorin) of Kozhikkode and the Raja of Travancore. But the Kochi Raja could resist these attacks, with the help of British rulers. This slowly led to the British control over the Kingdom,but was still ruled by different kings of Kochi itself. When India got independence in 1947, Kochi became a separate State. In the year 1949 Kochi State and Travancore State joined together to become Thiru-Kochi State. In 1956, when India Government divided the country into States based on Languages, Kerala became the State of Malayalam speaking people. Ernakulam area was then included under the Thrissur District of this new Kerala State.
Present Ernakulam District:
Today Ernakulam is one of the fourteen districts of Kerala, which lies almost at the centre of the State. This district came into existence on the First of April, 1958. As already pointed out when Kerala State was formed in 1956, Ernakulam area was included in the then Thrissur district. This district has its borders as the Arabian Sea in the West, Thrissur District in the North, Idukki and Kottayam Districts in the East and Alappuzha and Kottayam Districts in the South. Its location is 9o 57' North and 76o 15' East.
There are seven Taluks in Ernakulam District, viz., Paravur, Aluva, Kochi, Kanayannoor, Muvattupuzha, Kunnathunadu and Kothamangalam. Earlier, before the formation of Idukki District, Thodupuzha Taluk was also under Ernakulam district. For administrative convenience, district is divided into two Revenue sub Divisions, Fort kochi and Muvattupuzha. The number of villages is 124 and that of Blocks 15. There are 88 Panchayaths and 8 Municipalities. Kochi Corporation is the only corporation within the district. Fourteen Assembly segments are there and two and a portion of third (Chalakkudy) Parliamentary constituency are also coming within the district.
The District is spread in an area of 2407 sq.km., with a geographical division as Highland, Midland and Lowland. The altitude of Highland is about 1000 feet, consisting of hills and forests. Forest occupies about 8000 ha. of land. The low land is mainly the coastal area. There is coastal line of 46 km. The total water body area within the district is about 12,700 ha.
Ernakulam district is having the majority of islands of Kerala, which include islands such as man-made Willington Island, world's most populated Vypeen Island, Cheriya Kadamakkudi, Valiya Kadamakkudi, Ramanthuruthu, Ponjikkara, Vallarpadam, Kumbalam, Panangad, Cheppanam, Nettoor, Pizhala, Kankattu thuruthu, Koram padam, Cheranelloor, Chathanadu, and Chendamangalam. Density of population in most of these islands is comparatively high. Formation of these islands is attributed to the heavy soil erosion in the highlands due to monsoon and human interventions.
Major rivers in the district are the two famous rivers, namely, Periyar and Muvattupuzha. Periyar is the longest river in Kerala with a length of 229 km and the water discharge is also the maximum. This flows through Thodupuzha, Muvattupuzha, Aluva, Kunnathunadu and Parur taluks. The river plays a prominent role in the development of agriculture, industrial and commercial sectors of the district. Also this river is the drinking water source of majority of the population, including those in the Kochi Corporation. The Chalakudi river which flows through north of Aluva also joins Periyar at Elanthikara. Muvattupuzha river is formed with the joining of three rivers, namely, Kaliyar , Thodupuzhayar and Kothamangalamar. Since all these originate from the highlands, during rainy season heavy flow of water through them cause, very often, damages to the low-lying areas on the banks; but in the summer season they generally go dry and narrow. The lower portion of the Vembanad lake falls within the Kochi Taluk. Similarly, the sea coast in this district falls in Kochi and Parur Taluks. Kochi Harbour which is a major natural Harbour is situated in Kochi taluk. The Kodungalloor Kayal and Varappuzha kayal also come under this district.
Ernakulam district has recorded an average rainfall of 3431.8 mm per year and the annual number of rainy days are 139, on an average. Because of the presence of rivers, lakes and sea the region has a moderate climate. Averages of maximum and minimum relative humidity values are 81.5 and 28.11. Temperature reading generally falls between 31.3oC and 25.8oC. Many types of sands and soils, and also certain rocks of geological importance are abundant here.
The total population of this district, as per the 2001 census, is 31,05,798 with 15,67,401 women. The sex ratio is 1017 women for 1000 men. The density of the population is 1290. Though Ernakulam district was the first district in the country to attain total literacy (in the year 1990), its present total literacy is 93.42%. (Male literacy- 95.95% and female literacy-90.96%).(There are four districts in Kerala which have literacy rates more than that of Ernakulam; Alappuzha being in the top with 96.30%.). Density of the population is estimated as 1290 people per km. and the per capita income as Rs.23,020/-.
Ernakulam is, generally,referred as the Industrial capital of Kerala. This is because, if compared with other districts, Ernakulam district is bestowed with all the geographical factors which help the development of industry. Availability of electricity, fresh water, fairly long coast line, good banking facility, proximity to Kochi Port, International airport at Nedumbassery are some of the features which accelerated the industrial growth in the District.
Some of the major industrial firms in the district are the Fertilizers and Chemicals Travancore, Indian Rare Earths, Hindustan Machine Tools, Appollo Tyres, Hindustan Insecticides, Forest Industries of Travancore, Travancore Cochin Chemicals , Cominco Binani Zinc, Cochin Shipyard, Cochin Refineries. The export processing zone is situated at Kakkanad. The District consumes major share of electricity of the state. The Brahmapuram Diesel plant and Pathalam Naphtha plant are in the District. Approximately, thirty thousand small scale industrial units are functioning in this district.
As already pointed out, Ernakulam occupies an important position among the districts of Kerala in the spheres of literacy and educational standards. Adequate facilities are available for education starting from Pre-primary level to Post graduate level and for professional and technical education. The prestigious Cochin University of Science and Technology is within this district, which was established in the year 1971, transferring five Post Graduate Departments already functioning under Kerala University. Later several new departments with post graduate programmes and professional institutions were begun under this University. Now it is a centre of excellence in several fields of pure and applied science, technology, social science and humanities.
The Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady was established in 1993 by an ordinance and later incorporated as Act 5 of 1994 of the Kerala Legislature, The University located in the birth place of Sree Sankaracharya was interested in pursuing teaching and research in Sanskrit, Indology, Indian Philosophy, Indian languages, Fine Arts, Foreign languages and Social Sciences. The University is currently functioning in eight centres, namely Thiruvananthapuram, Thuravur, Ettumanoor, Kalady, Trissur, Tirur, Koilandy and Payyannur.
Majority of Arts and Science Colleges and professional colleges of the district are affiliated to the M.G. University, Kottayam. There are a total of 26 arts and science colleges and 11 professional colleges. The regional centre of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is functioning within the Kochi City. Also the National University of Advanced Legal Studies function here.
The only Fisheries College in the State is in Ernakulam district. Kerala Agricultural University, though its head quarters is at Thrissur, started this college at Panangad, near Kochi, since Kochi is the centre of fisheries research. Most of the Central Institutes connected with fisheries have their Head quarters at Kochi. Fishing activities and export are also centred at Kochi.
In the sphere of School Education also Ernakulam district is much advanced. There are a total of 475 Lower Primary Schools, 205 Upper Primary Schools, 296 High Schools, 136 Higher Secondary Schools, 34 Vocational Higher Secondary Schools and 4 special schools. Fourteen Teachers' Training Institutes also function within the district. In addition there are four polytechnics, four Technical schools and 7 other craft and trade training centres.
As in other parts of Kerala, Ernakulam district also has satisfactory hospital facilities. The number of Government Hospitals comes to 112, including 84 Public Health Centres. In private sector also there are several hospitals having modern facilities. Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Lake shore Hospital, Ernakulam Medical Trust, PVS Hospital, Lourdes Hospital, Lissy Hospital (all in Kochi City), Little Flower Hospital (Ankamali), Kolenchery Mission Hospital,etc. are some of the leading hospitals here. Additionally, three Medical colleges are also there in this district.
In the other systems of medicines such as Ayurveda and Homoeo also there are facilities in the district. In Ayurveda a district level Government Hospital is functioning in the Kochi city. An Ayurveda College, around fifty years old, under the control of Government function at Thripunithura. Recently a couple of Ayurveda Colleges have started under the private sector. A Homoeo College is also there in this district, functioning at Chottanikkara.
|Author: Jestin Francis 10 Nov 2009 Member Level: Silver Points: 1|
|Area of Ernakulam district:2047 sq.Km|
No of family:5556567
|Author: Azeem Nadirsha 22 May 2010 Member Level: Bronze Points: 1|
|Collector is Dr Beena IAS|
|Author: T.M.Sankaran 09 Mar 2011 Member Level: Gold Points: 2|
Changes in the Assembly Constituencies of the District
Though there is no change in the total number of Assembly constituencies (14) of Ernakulam District due to delimitations, the geographical borders and the names of certain existing constituencies have changed. The new constituencies are Kochi, Vypeen, Kalamassery and Thrikkakara. Those missing names are Njarakkal, Palluruthy, Vadakkekara and Mattanchery. The elections to the State Assembly, due in 2011, will be based on the new constituencies.
Kochi constituency is formed including 17 divisions of Kochi Corporation and the Grama Panchayats of Kumbalanghi and Chellanam of Kochi Taluk. Thus Kochi constituency consists of portions of now non-existent Palluruthy and Mattanchery constituencies. This constituency has 75,001 male and 78,214 female voters.
Vypeen constituency consist of Panchayaths earlier belonging to the Njarakkal constituency and additionally the Mulavukad Panchayath, earlier with Ernakulam Constituency. The total area falls under two Taluks, Kanayannur and Kochi. Kadamakkudy and Mulavukad Panchayaths are under the Kanayannur Taluk, while Edavanakkad, Elamkunnapuzha, Kuzhupilly, Nayarambalam, Njarakkal and Pallipuram Panchayats fall under Kochi Taluk. This new constituency has 73,469 male and 76,681 female voters.
Kalamassery is carved out of the existing Aluva constituency. It consists of Kalamassery Municipality and five grama panchayaths, viz., Eloor, Kadungallor, Alangad, Kunnukara and Karumaloor. Voters of this new constituency consist of 79,910 males and 82,848 females.
By bifurcating the existing Tripunithura constituency Thrikkakara constituency has been created. This consists of Thrikkakkara Municipality and 16 divisions of the Kochi corporation. The male and female voters here are, respectively, 77,110 and 80,346.
The number of voters shown are likely to change by the time of elections since the renewal of voters list are possible till date.
The other ten constituencies remaining without change in name are Ernakulam, Trippunithura, Piravom, Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalam, Aluva, Paravur, Perumbavur, Angamali and Kunnath nadu.
|Author: Vimal dev 06 Oct 2011 Member Level: Gold Points: 2 (Rs 2)|
Please find below information about Ernakulam district.
District collector :Mr.P.I Shaik Pareeth IAS
Address :District Collector
Ernakulam - 682030
Telephone number :0484-2423001
Email ID :email@example.com
|Author: Muhammedaneez 28 Sep 2012 Member Level: Gold Points: 2 (Rs 1)|
|"Queen of arabian sea" kochi is located in the middle of kerala through where arabian sea flows.The original name of kochi is Ernakulam.The main importance of ernakulam is the "Kerala High court" is situated in this district.Vallarpadam container terminal,Cochin metro rail project,Cochin international airport,Smart city,Info park,Cochin Shipyard,National Armed Departments division are the other which showing the importance and which attracting people to here.It is the only district which have an international stadium called "Jawaharlal nehru international stadium,kaloor" in kerala. Kerala's development is mainly dependent on the development of ernakulam.|
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