14 Jan 2009
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Posted Date: 18 Aug 2012 Points: 2 (
BODHGAYA: The Holiest Place Of Buddhist
Bodhgaya is situated in Gaya district. It is the place where Gautam Buddha obtained knowledge.
The main attraction of Bodhgaya is Bodhi Temple and Bodhi tree under which Buddha obtained knowledge. There many other temples which are made by the Buddhists of different countries like China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Tibet and other countries.
Bodhgaya is slowly emerging as a tourist spot.
Many 5 star and 7 star hotels and resorts are developing here. Thousand of people have got employment through tourism. However, tourists from different corner of the country and from foreign come here throughout the year but in winter season their number are at its climax. In January 2012 during Buddha Purnima, more than 10 lakh of tourists came here.
Due to Bodhgaya,Gaya district and Bihar has got a unique recognition at international level.
Posted Date: 17 Dec 2011 Points: 2 (
Official website of Bihar: http://www.gov.bih.nic.in/
Height above sea level: 173 feet
Normal rainfall: 1205 mm
State bird: Indian Roller
State tree: Peepal
State animal: Gaur
State flower: Kachnar
J. Stanly Jones
Posted Date: 02 Feb 2010 Points: 5 (
Date of formation: 15 August, 1947
Area: 94,163 sq km
Neighboring States: Jharkhand; Uttar Pradesh; West Bengal; Nepal (Country)
Population: 82,878,796 (Males: 43,153,964; Females: 39,724,832
Density: 880 per sq km
Sex Ratio: 921
Literacy: 47.53% (Males: 60.32; Females: 33.57)
Police Stations: 853
Chief Languages: Hindi, Urdu, Santhali
Major Religions: Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity
Cultural Dances: Seraikella
Cultural Festivals: Chhath Puja, Karam, Sama-Chakeva, Ramnavami
Main Towns: Gaya, Bihar Sharif, Bhagalpur, Purnia, Muzaffarpur, Bettah, Motihari, Siwan, Munger, Bhagalpur, Ara, Chhapra, Sasaram, Buxar
Rivers: Ganga, Gandak, Son, Saryu, Kosi, Kamla, Panar, Saura
Minerals: Ilmenite, Kaolin, Limestone, Mica, Stealite
Industries: Cotton spinning mills, Sugar mills, Jute mills, Leather industries
Agricultural Products: Rice, Wheat, Maize, Pulses, Sugarcane, Oilseeds, Tobacco, Jute, Potato
Main Railway Stations: Patna, Muzaffarpur, Samstipur, Gaya, Katihar
Posted Date: 17 Aug 2009 Points: 40 (
880 per sq km
Hindi, Urdu, Santhali.
Total: 47% Male:59.7%, Female: 33.1%
Located in the eastern part of the country, Bihar is landlocked state. The outlet to the sea is through the port of Kolkata. The river Ganga flows through the middle of Bihar plain from west to east and divides it into two halves.
Bihar lies midway between the humid West Bengal in the east and the sub-humid Uttar Pradesh in the west, which gives it a transitional position in terms of climate.
The north Gangetic Plain consist of a flat alluvial region, and are prone to floods. The river Kosi, due to its tendency to cause dangerous floods, was previously referred to as the ‘Sorrow of Bihar’, before the construction of artificial embankments.
The soil in the Bihar plain is composed mainly of new alluvium, which is mostly non-chalky and heavy-textured(clay and clay loam) towards the east, and chalky and light-textured(mostly sandy loam) towards the west of the Old Burhi Gandak river.
Apart from floods, another hazard is that this region lies in the Himalayan earthquake zone. The earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 caused widespread damage here.
In the south, the Gangetic Plain is more diversified than in the north. Many Hills rise from the level alluvium that constitutes the Gangetic Plain. Except for Son, all the rivers are small, and their water is diverted into irrigation channels. The soil of the land is usually made up of older alluvium.
The kaimur Plateau lies in the extreme northwest. It constitutes of nearly horizontal sandstone strata that are underlain by limestone. The soil of the plateau is typically red, and is sandy in the Damodar valley.
Neighbouring States and Union Territories:
West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkand.
Ganga, Kamla-Balan, Mahananda, saryu(Ghaghra). Gandak, Budhi Gandak and Bagmati.
Bihar’s climate is in keeping with the Indian subcontinent’s climatic pattern. Due to its great distance from the sea, Bihar enjoys a continental monsoon type of climate.
There are many factors that affect its climate. For one, the Himalayan mountains in the north affect the distribution of monsoon rainfall in Bihar. It records an average annual rainfall of about 1200mm.
Also, Bihar extends from 22 to 27N latitude, i.e. in the tropical to subtropical region.
The cold weather season in Bihar lasts from December to February. Summer lasts from March to May. The southwest monsoon lasts from June to September, and the retreating southwest monsoon from October to November.
Flora and Fauna:
Deciduous forests in the state can be found in the sub-Himalayan foothills of Someshwar and the Dunranges in Champaran. These forests are also largely made of grass, reeds and scrub. Other important trees include Semal, Khair, shisham, Cedrela Toona, and Shorea robusta(sal). These places register a rainfall of above 1600mm, which is responsible for the presence of sal forests in certain areas.
Many wildlife sanctuaries and reserves can be found in Bihar. Sambar, guar, nilgai, munjtac, elephants, tigers and the Indian wolf are some of the animals that can be seen in the sanctuaries. The birds, fish and reptiles consist of species common throughout peninsular India.
The history of Bihar dates back to the dawn of human civilization. The earliest myths an legends of Hinduism are associated with Bihar, including the Sanatana(eternal) Dharma. Sita, the consort of Lord Rama, is believed to have been princess from Bihar.
In the 3rd century BC, the state was part of ashoka’s kingdom. During the british rule in India, Bihar was a part of the Bengal Presidency and governed from Calcutta, and was separated from it in 1912. Together with Orissa, Bihar formed a single province, until the Government of India act of 1935, which made Orissa into a separate province and led to the formation of the province of Bihar as an individual administrative unit of British india.
At the time of independence in 1947, Bihar was constituted with the same geographic boundary into the Republic of India. In 1956, during the linguistic reorganization of Indian states, the south-east area of Bihar known as Purulia was separated from the state, and was added to the territory of west Bengal. Sri Krishna Sinha became the first chief minister of Bihar.
In the year 2000, Bihar was bifurcated and the state of Jharkand was carved out.
Writers from Bihar like Shiva Pujan Sahay, Ram Briksha Benipuri, Raja Radhika Raman Singh, Ramdhari Singh Dinakar, and Divakar Prasad Vidyarthy contributed greatly to hindi literature and culture, which flourished around the mid-19th century, with Bhartendu Babu Harishchandra’s drama ‘Harischandra’. ‘Indumati’ by Pundit kishorilal Goswami was published in 1900, and is considered to be one of the very first short stories in Hindi.
Bihar also has a variety of dance forms including religious dances and the dances of the tribals and the famous Chhau dance. Karma, Jatra and Paika dances are some other important dances.
Fairs and Festivals:
Bihar has a long tradition of festivals. The most popular Festival ‘Chatt Puja’, is a unique form of worship of the ‘sun god’. The people of Bihar have immense faith in this festival, which is celebrated twice a year, once in ‘Chaitra’ (according to the Hindu Calendar, in March) and in ‘Kartik’(November).
The other popular festivals include Sama-Chakeva festival, Ramnavami and Makar Sankranti, also known as the Tila Sankranti, to mark the beginning of summer.
Industry and Agriculture
Minerals and Industry:
Some of the major industries in Bihar are agro-based industries, oil refineries, textiles, engineering, and oil mills.
Industries that are dependent on agriculture are edible oil mills located at Araria, rice mills located in Buxar karbisganch in Purnia district, spice industries, sugar mills located at Banmankhi in Purnia district, jute mills and other agro-based industries.
One of the biggest oil refineries in the country is situated at Barauni in Bihar. It is managed and controlled by the Indian oil Corporation Ltd, and was built in collaboration with the erstwhile Soviet Union at a cost of Rs 49.40 crores, and went into operation in 1964.
After West Bengal, Bihar is the largest producer of jute and jute textiles. This is largely due to the availability of sufficient power, raw jute, water, transportation, and cheap labour. Jute mills are located in katihar and Muktapur in Samastipur district, and at Karsbisganj in Purnia district.
Engineering industries are located at Madora in the district of Saran, Muktapur in Samastipur district, Dumaro in Bhojpur district, and Fatuha in Patna district. Railway carriages and goods factories are located in Rohtas district at Dehri-on-son.
Due to the availability of kendu leave and cheap labour, biri manufacturing industries are located at Bihar Sarif in Nalanda district. Bihar is also the sixth largest producer of tobacco in the country.
The important minerals found in Bihar are limestone, pyrites, quartzite and steatite.
Bihar has plenty of farm lands and orchards. The important crops include paddy, sugarcane, wheat and lentils. Jute or hemp, a source of tough fibres used for ‘gunny bags’ are also grown. Some of the important fruits grown in the state are banana, jackfruit, mangoes, and litchis.
Paddy is the important crop in all the regions. Supplementary crops include oil seeds, pulses(legumes), barley, gram, wheat and corn(maize). Sugarcane is grown in a well-defined belt in the north-west.
Vegetables include potatoes grown near Bihar Sharif, in Patna district, which produces the best variety of seed potato in India. Other important cash crops include tobacco and chillies that are grown on the banks of the ganga.
Thermal power is the main source of electricity in the state. Hydroelectric power ranks a distant second.
Prominent institutes of higher education include B.N. Mandal University (Madhepura), Babasaheb Bhimaro Ambedkar bihar university (Muzaffarpur), Jai Prakash Vishwavidyalaya(Chapra), Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University(Darbhanga),Lalit Narayan Mithila University(Darbhanga), Magadh University(Bodh Gaya), Nalanda open University(Patna), Patna University, Rajendra Agricultural University (Samastipur), Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University (Bhagalpur) and Veer Kunwar Singh University (Arrah).
Major tourist attractions:
Bodh Gaya, Rajgir Nalanda, Vaishali, Pawapuri, Lauria Nandangarh, Vikramshila.
Valmiki National Park in Pashchim Champaran district(335.65sq km).
Posted Date: 03 Jun 2009 Points: 10 (
Bihar Lok Sabha Election Results 2009
List of Leading / Winning Candidate in Bihar with area,name of Candidate and party
Bihar 1 Valmiki Nagar Baidyanath Prasad Mahto Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 2 Paschim Champaran Dr. Sanjay Jaiswal Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 3 Purvi Champaran Radha Mohan Singh Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 4 Sheohar Rama Devi Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 5 Sitamarhi Arjun Roy Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 6 Madhubani Hukmadeo Narayan Yadav Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 7 Jhanjharpur Mangani Lal Mandal Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 8 Supaul Vishwa Mohan Kumar Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 9 Araria Pradeep Kumar Singh Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 10 Kishanganj Mohammad Asrarul Haque Indian National Congress
Bihar 11 Katihar Nikhil Kumar Choudhary Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 12 Purnia Uday Singh Alias Pappu Singh Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 13 Madhepura Sharad Yadav Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 14 Darbhanga Kirti Azad Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 15 Muzaffarpur Captain Jai Narayan Prasad Nishad Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 16 Vaishali Raghuvansh Prasad Singh Rashtriya Janata Dal
Bihar 17 Gopalganj Purnmasi Ram Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 18 Siwan Om Prakash Yadav Independent
Bihar 19 Maharajganj Uma Shanaker Singh Rashtriya Janata Dal
Bihar 20 Saran Lalu Prasad Rashtriya Janata Dal
Bihar 21 Hajipur Ram Sundar Das Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 22 Ujiarpur Aswamedh Devi Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 23 Samastipur Maheshwar Hazari Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 24 Begusarai Dr. Monazir Hassan Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 25 Khagaria Dinesh Chandra Yadav Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 26 Bhagalpur Syed Shahnawaz Hussain Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 27 Banka Digvijay Singh Independent
Bihar 28 Munger Rajiv Ranjan Singh Alias Lalan Singh Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 29 Nalanda Kaushalendra Kumar Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 30 Patna Sahib Shatrughan Sinha Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 31 Pataliputra Ranjan Prasad Yadav Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 32 Arrah Meena Singh Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 33 Buxar Jagada Nand Singh Rashtriya Janata Dal
Bihar 34 Sasaram Meira Kumar Indian National Congress
Bihar 35 Karakat Mahabali Singh Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 36 Jahanabad Jagdish Sharma Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 37 Aurangabad Sushil Kumar Singh Janata Dal (United)
Bihar 38 Gaya Hari Manjhi Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 39 Nawada Bhola Singh Bharatiya Janata Party
Bihar 40 Jamui Bhudeo Choudhary Janata Dal (United)
Posted Date: 28 Feb 2009 Points: 0
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