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2006 All India Management Association (AIMA) M.B.A Marketing Management Organizational Behavior - I University Question paper



Course: M.B.A Marketing Management   University/board: All India Management Association (AIMA)





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Question Paper
Organizational Behavior - I (MB1B1): October 2006
? Answer all 100 questions.
? Each question carries one mark.
1. Managers perform ten different, highly interrelated roles, or sets of behaviors attributable to their jobs. A
manager when performing the role of a spokesperson
(a) Receives wide variety of information and serves as nerve center of internal and external information of
the organization
(b) Transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization
(c) Represents the organization during the interactions with outside parties
(d) Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information
(e) Transmits information about motivation and direction of employees through speeches.
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2. Ram is appointed as a project leader in TechnoSoft Ltd. He wants to adopt a leadership approach that
focuses on the employee’s readiness and willingness to perform as well as his ability to do what is
expected. Ram’s choice of leadership theory will be
(a) Fiedler’s contingency model
(b) Leader-member exchange theory
(c) Life cycle model
(d) Leadership-participation model
(e) Path-goal theory.
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3. IBM made considerable efforts to stabilize its workforce and preserve their jobs. It reduced overtime and
freezed hiring. Moreover, it allowed job transfers and also offered early retirement incentives. Which of
the following models of organizational behavior is IBM adopting?
(a) The autocratic model
(b) The collegial model
(c) The supportive model
(d) The custodial model
(e) The cognitive model.
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4. The amount of difference between two social systems or the social systems of two different countries is
referred to as
(a) Cross-cultural re-entry
(b) Cultural distance
(c) Ethical dilemma
(d) Guided imagery
(e) Psychological contract.
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5. Bobby is a corporate manager who prefers rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities. He is dull
and a stubborn person. But is very efficient in work related activities and is practical in his approach. What
type is Bobby’s personality?
(a) Artistic
(b) Conventional
(c) Realistic
(d) Social
(e) Enterprising.
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6. A research analyst working for a company will experience equity or inequity when he compares his salary
with that of another research analyst working with him. The referent comparison used by the research
analyst is known as
(a) Other-inside
(b) Self-inside
(c) Other-outside
(d) Self-outside
(e) Distortion.
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7. IBM Canada has restructured its organization to enable employees who have contact with customers to be
more involved in the decision-making process. This change is aimed at improving organizational
efficiency. IBM is trying to
(a) Achieve a competitive advantage through people
(b) Apply scientific principles
(c) Engage in group decision-making
(d) Achieve circular reasoning
(e) Maintain competition records.
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8. Basic form of perceptual organization confirming that perceived objects are separated from their general
background by the perceiver is known as
(a) Figure ground
(b) Principle of contrast
(c) Principle of intensity
(d) Closure
(e) Halo effect.
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9. People tend to develop some generalizations that are helpful in explaining and predicting ‘what others will
do’. Which of the following statements is not true regarding generalization of behavior?
(a) Happy workers are productive workers
(b) Everybody likes a challenging job
(c) Individuals are most productive when the boss is friendly, reliable and unassuming
(d) Money motivates everyone
(e) People are more concerned about others’ salaries rather than their own.
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10. When George Buckley became CEO of Brunswick, a boating and sports-equipment conglomerate, the
company was operating like an “industrial-age dinosaur.” Buckley asked his 25,000 employees, “Why not
become the Toyota of boating?”Five years after Buckley became the CEO, Brunswick is well on its way to
reaching this goal. As one observer said, “This old company is reinventing itself at the atomic level.” What
kind of a leader is Buckley?
(a) Transactional
(b) Transformational
(c) Contingency
(d) Autocratic
(e) Delegative.
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11. ‘Self’ refers to the personality of an individual as viewed by that person himself. Which of the following in
not likely to influence self-efficacy?
(a) Being told you can do a task
(b) Feeling comfortable about doing a task
(c) Making a reward contingent on the desired behavior
(d) Observing someone else doing a task
(e) Performing a task successfully.
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12. Vroom proposed the expectancy theory of work motivation which is based on three variables. In this
context, instrumentality refers to
(a) An individual’s perception of the degree to which a first-level outcome would help in attaining the
desired second-level outcome
(b) The degree of rewards individuals receive for their work
(c) The strength of individual’s preference for a particular outcome
(d) The level of liking or disliking the boss
(e) The probability that performing a specific action would produce a first-level outcome.
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13. Which of the following statements is true regarding cognitive framework of organizational behavior?
(a) Cognition precedes behavior and serves as an input for a person’s thoughts, perception, problem solving
and information processing
(b) Cognitive focuses on observable behaviors rather than evasive mind
(c) Cognitive framework deals with identifying latest trends in management
(d) Cognitive framework concentrates on developing skills such as communications skills etc
(e) Cognitive framework deals with continuously improving the organization.
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14. Though individuals may observe the same thing, yet they may perceive it differently. Many factors operate
to either shape or distort perception. These factors relate to the perceiver. In light of the above statement,
identify the factor that does not influence perception?
(a) Attitudes
(b) Motives
(c) Interests
(d) Food habits
(e) Experience.
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15. Organizational Behavior is defined as “the understanding, prediction and management of human behavior
in organizations.” Keith Davis has brought out the importance of organizational behavior in the equation
(a) Knowledge x Skill = Motivation
(b) Attitude ? Situation = Organizational performance
(c) Ability ? Motivation = Potential Human performance
(d) Human performance ? Resources = Ability
(e) Knowledge ? Skill = Attitude.
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16. Ms. Susan is the manager in the marketing department of Watch Corporation. She is successful in
persuading others to work. She has no problem delegating some of her responsibilities to her sub-ordinates
when her workload is too great, even if that means giving up control over a project. Once she delegates a
task, she doesn’t watch over their shoulders. Which personality characteristic does this demonstrate?
(a) Extraversion
(b) Conscientiousness
(c) Openness to experience
(d) Machiavellianism
(e) Risk taking.
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17. William Ouchi proposed Theory Z as an integrative model of organizational behavior. William Ouchi
believed that in order to match the quality and productivity of Japanese firms, the American companies
have to modify their management styles. Which of the following changes in human resource management
of American companies is not recommended by William Ouchi?
(a) They should offer more secure and better career prospects
(b) They should involve employees in decision making process
(c) They should emphasize team spirit and recognize individuals contribution to team
(d) Managers and their subordinates should have mutual respect for each other
(e) They should deploy employees on short-term basis.
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18. Ms. Dhathri works in sales department of Hewlett-Packard. She set a moderate goal of increasing sales by
5 percent but doesn’t feel comfortable delegating much of the work. She frequently thinks about work at
home. Ms. Dhathri has a high need for
(a) Power
(b) Achievement
(c) Affiliation
(d) Security
(e) Status.
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19. The Hawthorne experiments were the first systematic attempt to undertake serious research into the
workplace. The series of experiments involved in development of Hawthorne studies is/are
I. Pavlov’s experiment.
II. The illumination experiment.
III. Relay assembly room experiment.
IV. Bank wiring observation room experiment.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Both (I) and (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (IV) above
(d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) (II), (III) and (IV) above.
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20. Researchers identified different independent dimensions along which an individual’s leadership behavior
could be studied. When a person puts pressure on his/her sub-ordinates to meet deadlines and maintain
certain standards of performance, he/she is said to be scoring high on
(a) Delegation dimension
(b) Initiating structure
(c) Autocratic dimension
(d) Consideration dimension
(e) Charismatic dimension.
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21. Mr. Jayesh is working as a Road Transport Office (RTO) consultant. He is known for his friendly,
cooperative and understanding nature. But he does not like his colleague Mr. Mahesh, because he takes
bribes. Which component of the Jayesh’s attitude reflects in this situation?
(a) Socialistic
(b) Behavioral
(c) Cognitive
(d) Conventional
(e) Affective.
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22. Several disciplines have contributed to the study of human relations and organizational behavior. Which of
the following statements is true regarding anthropology?
(a) It is a scientific study of the nature and development of society
(b) It is the study of mankind, especially of its origin, development, customs and beliefs
(c) It is the study of individual and group behavior within a particular political environment
(d) It is a study that is blend of psychology and sociology that focuses on influence of people on one
another
(e) It is a social science that helps explain, measure and remodel human behavior.
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23. Which of the following statements are true regarding the underlying principles of quality circles?
I. The supervisors should be trained in facilitation skills.
II. Quality circles would be used only for addressing problems of a short-term nature.
III. Continuous support from top management is essential for the success of quality circles.
IV. Quality circles are involuntary groups of people who come together to generate ideas.
(a) Both (I) and (II) above
(b) Both (I) and (III) above
(c) Both (II) and (III) above
(d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) (II), (III) and (IV) above.
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24. Theory Y recommends empowerment of employees for improving work performance. This was later
termed as ‘job enrichment’ by Frederick Herzberg. Job enrichment refers to
(a) The vertical expansion of jobs
(b) Authority to take a decision within one’s area of operations without having to get anyone’s approval
(c) Redesigning of jobs
(d) Manager exercising control on job
(e) Bringing about radical change in the definition of business and its role.
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25. Mr. David, an employee in a fashion designing firm came out with a new textile design for customers. The
design became popular in the market, therefore the other employees simply modified and added more
colors and changed shapes to it and released it into the market later. According to the grouping principle of
perceptual organization, the employees referred in the example used the principle of
(a) Proximity
(b) Closure
(c) Similarity
(d) Continuity
(e) Constancy.
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26. Ms. Suma has determined that her subordinate has high willingness to perform, but has low ability.
According to the Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model, she should use which of the
following leadership styles?
(a) Telling
(b) Selling
(c) Participating
(d) Delegating
(e) Consulting.
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27. Which of the following statements is/are true regarding ‘human relations’?
I. Human relations deal with the interaction of people in a work situation that helps to generate team
spirit.
II. Human relations bring about an integration of individual and organizational goals.
III. Human relations is the result of the unique blend of the related disciplines-psychology, sociology and
anthropology.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (II) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
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28. Which of the following traits refers to the extent to which a person is responsible and achievement
oriented and limits the number of goals set for himself, devote his time and energy to those goals and often
succeed in achieving his goals?
(a) Agreeableness
(b) Openness to experience
(c) Conscientiousness
(d) Extraversion
(e) Emotional stability.
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29. Emily likes challenges. She has a desire to perform well and is hard working, persisting until her goal is
achieved. She started her own business. But as the business grew and required organization, Emily lost
control over the business. Emily is
I. High in achievement motive.
II. Low in achievement motive.
III. Low in power motive.
IV. High in power motive.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (III) above
(e) Both (II) and (IV) above.
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30. The social science that helps explain, measure and remodel human behavior is known as
(a) Psychology
(b) Social psychology
(c) Industrial psychology
(d) Sociology
(e) Economics.
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31. Which of the following statements is/are true regarding ‘suggestion programs’?
I. Suggestion programs are another form of employee participation.
II. Suggestion programs provide many useful ideas but they ensure participation only to a limited extent.
III. Suggestion programs facilitate group problem solving and teamwork.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (II) above
(d) Both (I) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
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32. Mr. Daniel sets ambitious deadlines for himself and works under continuous time pressures and he
constantly experiences a high level of stress. He is believed to be ambitious and achievement oriented. But
sometimes, ends up doing a hasty job that lacks quality. Even though he is the manager, he is not
innovative with his decisions and at times makes poor decisions. Thus, Mr. Daniel has the characteristics
of
(a) Introversion
(b) Type A personality
(c) Extraversion
(d) Type B personality
(e) Conscientiousness.
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33. Employees of LG Polymers willingly started doing overtime during the busy season. This is because,
employees who worked overtime the previous year during the busy season, got increments in their salaries
in the appraisal that followed. This is known as
(a) Associative learning
(b) Perceptive learning
(c) Conditioned learning
(d) Instrumental learning
(e) Motivate learning.
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34. The Porter-Lawler model was developed by Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler III. Which of the
following is not a variable in the Porter-Lawler model?
(a) Effort
(b) Goals
(c) Performance
(d) Rewards
(e) Satisfaction.
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35. Perceptual selectivity depends on external attention factors and internal set factors. Which of the following
is not an external attention factor?
(a) Motion
(b) Contrast
(c) Reputation
(d) Novelty
(e) Intensity.
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36. Human behavior can be understood better if one is able to comprehend the role played by the internal and
external factors in influencing behavior. Which of the following statements is/are true regarding
personality vs. environment factors?
I. Personality is not a result of the generic factors alone.
II. People behave in different ways depending on the situation.
III. Only personality traits, not the situational factors, have an impact on human behavior.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (II) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
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37. A multicultural organization possesses a set of core cultural values. Which of the following organizations
allow the domination of one group over others in the workforce on the basis of certain criteria like age,
gender, education or race?
(a) Club organization
(b) Exclusionary organization
(c) Compliance organization
(d) Redefining organization
(e) Affirmative action organization.
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38. Ronald wants to make up his career in a reputed organization as an important employee, because he seeks
an identity for himself. In this process, he keeps switching between various jobs in search of the right one
and as a result, he is unstable in his career and is less productive. In which stage of the career development
is Ronald, according to Hall?
(a) Adolescence stage
(b) Exploration stage
(c) Maintenance stage
(d) Establishment stage
(e) Maturity stage.
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39. Theories of motivation are based on cognitive psychology. Other emerging theories in recent times are
control theory and agency theory. Which of the following statements describes the control theory?
I. Control is a cognitive phenomenon.
II. It focuses on the control function, which is an integral part of the management process.
III. Control is a coercive power.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (II) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
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40. Mentoring programs help the employees to manage diversity in the organizations. Which of the following
statements is not true regarding a mentor?
(a) Acts as a coach
(b) Acts as a protégé
(c) Acts as a role model
(d) Acts as a sponsor
(e) Offers emotional support.
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41. Bill Scott, Head of Product Development at Syntax Corporation, was put in charge of a high profile project
that would determine the company’s future. Bill led a team of 250 engineering, marketing and
manufacturing professionals for two years. This resulted in the unveiling of a family of new internet
phones. Unfortunately, these new products were a miserable failure in the market. In fact, the “internet
phone” project turned out so badly that Bill’s reputation at Syntax was irreparably damaged. No matter
what he did, everyone in the company seemed to question his credibility based on the failure of the
internet phone project. This is an example of a(n)
(a) Attribution
(b) Perceptual context
(c) Stereotyping
(d) Perceptual defense
(e) Halo effect.
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42. Two people may share a 40-hour-per-week job, with one working mornings and the other working
afternoons. This flexible work arrangement is an example of
(a) Flexible work hours
(b) Job sharing
(c) Compressed work week
(d) Telecommuting
(e) Reengineering.
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43. Jack Jackson of Quality Carpets has been seriously considering a career change. However after much
contemplation, Jack has concluded that the stress and emotional aspects of leaving the firm would surpass
any gains he would acquire at a new organization. Jack is experiencing
(a) Social commitment
(b) Affective commitment
(c) Coercive commitment
(d) Normative commitment
(e) Continuance commitment.
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44. Which one of the following needs is the government trying to fulfill by presenting gallantry awards to the
defense personnel who have excelled in their duties risking their lives?
(a) Basic
(b) Security
(c) Social
(d) Esteem
(e) Self-actualization.
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45. Many organizations are increasingly becoming multicultural organizations. One of the stages of
development of multicultural organization is compliance organization. Which of the following statements
best describes a compliance organization?
(a) An organization hiring workforce on basis of criteria such as age, gender, education, religion or race
(b) Hiring and promoting women and minorities but offering limited role in organizational activities
(c) Hiring and promoting women and minorities to show their token presence and not with intent of
developing a true multicultural organization
(d) Supports the development of women, minorities, older workers physically disabled persons and other
groups
(e) Understands the significance of employing diverse workforce and strengthen visionary planning and
problem solving.
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46. The first step of the Organizational Behavior Modification (O.B. Mod) process involves identifying the
critical behaviors which have a significant impact on the individual’s performance, and therefore, on the
organization’s performance. In order to identify critical behaviors for O.B. Mod, which of the following
questions need to have an affirmative answer?
I. What type of behavior is desirable in employees?
II. Can the behavior be directly measured?
III. How can these behaviors be reinforced?
IV. Does it affect the performance outcome?
V. When should these reinforcements be offered?
(a) Both (I) and (III) above
(b) Both (II) and (IV) above
(c) (I), (III) and (V) above
(d) (II), (III) and (V) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III), (IV) and (V) above.
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47. Ms. Sharon Winner is the manager for Realities, Inc. in Los Angeles. She discusses problems with
subordinates and seeks their suggestions before making a decision. Sharon Winner’s leadership style is
referred to as
(a) Directive
(b) Supportive
(c) Participative
(d) Achievement-oriented
(e) Delegative.
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48. Alternative work schedules provide dual-career families the flexibility to balance work and family
demands. Flextime is one among the alternative work schedule arrangements. Which of the following is
not true regarding flextime?
(a) It gives more autonomy to employees with respect to their work timings
(b) Employees have to work only during business timings
(c) It gives them the freedom to work in accordance with their lifestyles
(d) Employees can work at anytime irrespective of the business timings
(e) The employees of the organization have to work for a minimum period of eight hours daily.
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49. A union leader developed a negative attitude towards management due to the fact that sometime in the
past, management had tried to manipulate workers by making false promises. Because of that experience,
the union leader may regard anything said by the management as a means to manipulate the workers.
Irrespective of the reality at a given point in time, he tries to interpret any action or promise of
management on the basis of standards of reference set by himself. This refers to which of the following
functions of attitude?
(a) The defensive function
(b) The cooptation function
(c) The knowledge function
(d) The coercion function
(e) The perception function.
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50. Legislation and lawsuits in many countries especially in USA prohibit discrimination of employees. It
emphasizes organization to provide equal opportunity for all employees. This attitude is mainly
responsible for emergence of
(a) Informal organization
(b) Diversity in organizations
(c) Two-way communication process
(d) Informal groups
(e) Industrial democracy.
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51. When the President of Leapfrog, a company that makes educational toys, says, “Our company is simply
experiencing a little slump in profitability and revenue,” to a reporter, he is engaged in
(a) Encoding the message
(b) Transmitting the message
(c) Using the information
(d) Decoding the message
(e) Giving feedback.
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52. Psychologists are not in agreement as to how to classify various human motives. However, most
psychologists agree that some motives are learned while others are not learned, but instead have a
physiological basis. Which of the following statements is/are true regarding general motives?
I. A motive is considered to be a general motive if it is not learned, and not based on physiological
needs.
II. General motives induce an individual to reduce the tension within him/her.
III. Hunger, thirst, sleep etc. are some of the general motives.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (III) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
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53. A salesman himself may believe that the products of his company are of inferior quality, but is under
conflict because he has to promote the products by convincing people that his company’s products are of
superior quality. In this situation, he is under
(a) Person-situation interaction
(b) Machiavellianism
(c) Locus of control
(d) Extroversion
(e) Emotional dissonance.
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54. Communication is vital for the functioning of organizations. Which of the following is/are not true with
respect to interactive communication?
I. The interactive communication constitutes formal channels of communication and has a central role
to play in organizations.
II. The interactive process has many behavioral implications.
III. In interactive communication, the flow of information is confined to a specific path.
IV. In interactive communication, the flow of information takes place spontaneously among people,
irrespective of their levels.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (III) above
(e) Both (II) and (IV) above.
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55. During music class, Latha enthusiastically sings aloud with her class, but the teacher comments, “Latha,
please… you sound like an owl in a torture chamber.” Latha turns bright red. The next week she feels ill
when it is time to go to music class again. Feeling anxiety at the prospect of going to music class is an
example of
(a) Unconditioned stimulus
(b) Classical conditioning
(c) Cognitive learning
(d) Social learning
(e) Unconditioned response.
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56. There are many types of programs relating to the participation of employees in an organization. Which
method of participation is operating by consensus and reflects many ideas of Theory Z?
(a) Industrial democracy
(b) Socio-technical teams
(c) Involvement teams
(d) Consultative management
(e) Middle-management committees.
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57. Phani is a systems analyst. His work involves discovering, analyzing and solving problems. According to
Holland’s typology of personality, Phani is most likely to be
(a) Artistic
(b) Investigative
(c) Conventional
(d) Realistic
(e) Social.
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58. Various participative programs usually result in favorable outcomes both for the employees as well as the
organization. Which of the following does not come under the favorable outcomes for the employees?
(a) Creativity
(b) Self-efficacy
(c) Acceptance
(d) Satisfaction
(e) Less stress.
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59. Which of the following is defined by Vroom’s expectancy theory, as the degree to which an individual
believes that working at a particular level will generate a desired outcome?
(a) Attractiveness
(b) Performance-reward linkage
(c) Effort-performance linkage
(d) Reward-individual goal linkage
(e) Motivator.
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60. The marketing department has just sent a four-page report to the engineering department concerning plans
for a new product launch that will take place in the next two months. This is an example of which of the
following forms of communication?
(a) Upward
(b) Lateral
(c) Network
(d) Downward
(e) Grapevine.
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61. According to the grouping principle of perceptual organization, an individual tends to group several
stimuli together into a recognizable pattern. According to which of the following principles, a person may
sometimes perceive a whole, where it does not exist while sometimes, a person may not be able to
perceive a whole although one exists?
(a) Proximity
(b) Closure
(c) Similarity
(d) Continuity
(e) Constancy.
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62. In which stage of Hall’s career stage model, the individual evaluates his/her life and career and tries to
convince himself that he/she made the right decisions in his/her life?
(a) Achievement
(b) Maintenance
(c) Exploration
(d) Decline
(e) Establishment.
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63. A student arrives late to class everyday. Dr. Bharath begins to draw attention to this by pausing each day
when the student arrives and saying “Glad you could join us Mr. Sudhir”. After three such instances Mr.
Sudhir began arriving to class on time and Dr. Bharath made no public remarks directed at Sudhir. What
method of reinforcement was used here?
(a) Positive reinforcement
(b) Negative reinforcement
(c) Punishment
(d) Castigation
(e) Extinction.
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64. Employees, who are actively involved in lateral communication, have access to large amounts of
information outside their department, which they filter and communicate to others. What are these
employees referred to as?
(a) Boundary Spanners
(b) Mentors
(c) Perceives
(d) Risk takers
(e) Wedge drivers.
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65. The sum total of ways in which an individual interacts with people and reacts to situations is known as
(a) Attitude
(b) Emotions
(c) Behavior
(d) Personality
(e) Character.
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66. Grapevine provides information on the unwritten rules of the organization and important management
decisions. Which of the following is not true with respect to grapevine?
(a) It is beyond the control of management
(b) Managers generally use the grapevine as a source of information
(c) It is mostly used by employees to serve their personal and social interests
(d) Managers use grapevine as a filter and feedback mechanism to eliminate rumors in the organization
(e) It is considered more reliable and believable than other formal communication channels.
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67. Many people see an accident, but the police cannot get “one” picture of what “caused” the accident. What
is this process called?
(a) Attribution
(b) Halo effect
(c) Glass ceiling effect
(d) Stereotyping
(e) Perception.
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68. The personality attributes help predict the behavior of individuals in organizations. The first attribute is
concerned with one’s perception of the locus of control in a person’s life. In this regard, which of the
following statements is/are false?
I. Individuals with external locus of control (externals) are highly achievement-oriented and search
extensively for the required information before making a decision.
II. Individuals with internal locus of control (internals) are better suited for jobs involving routine and
structured tasks.
III. Internals are the individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (II) above
(e) Both (II) and (III) above.
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69. One of the effective ways of upward communication is through a person who is to receive and respond to
enquires, complaints, requests for policy clarification or allegations of injustice by employees. Such
position was initially created in Scandinavia and later followed by Universities and government
organizations in U.S.A and other countries. Such a person is referred to as a/an
(a) Receiver
(b) Ombudsperson
(c) Supervisor
(d) Leader
(e) Manager.
>
70. The classical and operant conditioning processes help us understand how people acquire patterns of
behavior. In this context, which of the following statements are false?
I. Classical conditioning finds greater application in human learning than operant conditioning.
II. In classical conditioning, it is the environmental event following the behavior that determines the
strength and frequency of the behavior.
III. In operant conditioning, the reward is given only when the organism gives the correct response.
IV. Many managers base their behavioral strategies on the operant theory to motivate their employees
and teach them desirable behaviors.
(a) Both (I) and (II) above
(b) Both (I) and (III) above
(c) Both (II) and (IV) above
(d) Both (III) and (IV) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
>
71. George Garrett of Holshow Insurance frequently speaks of his personal friendship with the State Insurance
Commissioner when he attends organizational meetings. George is demonstrating which direct attempt at
shaping other’s perceptions?
(a) Figure-ground
(b) Defensive impression
(c) Impression motivation
(d) Stereotyping
(e) Impression construction.
>
13
72. The major advantage of which of the following participation programs is that ideas are carefully
scrutinized before they are presented to the top management?
(a) Self-managing teams
(b) Multiple management
(c) Consultative management
(d) Suggestion programs
(e) Programs emphasizing quality.
>
73. According to leadership – participation model, which of the following leadership styles is adopted by a
leader who obtains relevant information from subordinates and then attempts to find the solution to the
problem, but does not reveal the problem or seek the advice of subordinates in finding a solution or
making a decision?
(a) Autocratic I
(b) Autocratic II
(c) Consultive I
(d) Consultive II
(e) Group II.
>
74. Which of the following traits refers to the extent to which a person subjugates his/her interests for the sake
of the group and gives importance to maintaining harmony and do not insist that others agree with what
he/she says or follow his/her suggestions?
(a) Agreeableness
(b) Openness to experience
(c) Conscientiousness
(d) Extraversion
(e) Emotional stability.
>
75. Motorola is an organization that had downsized and flattened its structure. It is having hundreds of
departments and sub-divisions. So it had adopted project and matrix organizational designs. In order to
achieve organizational goals, all the departments should act in a coordinated manner. Which of the
following types of communication should Motorola adopt?
(a) Upward communication
(b) Downward communication
(c) Horizontal communication
(d) Lateral communication
(e) Vertical communication.
>
76. Claude had an unpleasant experience during his last visit to Dallas, Texas. He was approached by two
men with strong Texas accent who wielded a sharp knife, roughed him up, cracked a rib, and stole all his
money. Ever since Claude was mugged, he has taken an instant dislike to anyone who speaks with Texas
slang. Claude’s negative attitude is most probably a result of
(a) Classical conditioning
(b) Operant conditioning
(c) Cognitive dissonance
(d) Halo effect
(e) Stereotyping.
>
77. Rob perceives Sandy to be receiving reinforcement for a behavior. Rob imitates Sandy’s behavior in order
to increase the probability that he also will be reinforced. This is an example of
(a) Classical conditioning
(b) Vicarious processes
(c) Operant conditioning
(d) Cognitive dissonance
(e) Self-reinforcement.
>
14
78. A number of obstacles may restrict the receiver’s understanding of a message. These interruptions act as
barriers to communication. Which of the following is not a barrier to effective communication?
(a) Selective perception
(b) Attitude questionnaires
(c) Emotions
(d) Information overload
(e) Language.
>
79. According to the managerial grid, managers who score high on concern for people and low on concern for
production demonstrate which of the following leadership styles?
(a) Impoverished management
(b) Country club management
(c) Authority-compliance
(d) Team management
(e) Middle of the road management.
>
80. Ms. Kavita notices that Leila, her subordinate, is habitually rude to suppliers. By not involving Leila in an
interesting new assignment, Kavita is using the technique of
(a) Positive reinforcement
(b) Punishment
(c) Negative reinforcement
(d) Rational persuasion
(e) Extinction.
>
81. Which of the following is/are the personality determinant(s)?
I. Heredity.
II. Environment.
III. Situation.
IV. Individual.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Both (I) and (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (IV) above
(d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) (II), (III) and (IV) above.
>
82. Participative technique is one of the decision-making methods for making upward communication
effective in an organization. In this context, which of the following is not a participative technique?
(a) Suggestion boxes
(b) Junior boards
(c) Quality circles
(d) Informal involvement of employees
(e) Club organization.
>
83. Which of the following refers to a pattern of behavior that may be relatively stable or unstable and shows
whether a person behaves similarly in a similar situation or if a particular behavior is just an infrequent
occurrence?
(a) Valence
(b) Expectancy
(c) Consensus
(d) Distinctiveness
(e) Consistency.
>
84. An expatriate manager evaluates other cultures on the basis of how similar they are to his/her own culture.
Then such manager finds difficulties to adapt to a culture different from his own. Such a tendency is
referred to as
(a) Ethnocentrism
(b) Culture shock
(c) Cultural distance
(d) Parochialism
(e) Kinesics.
>
15
85. A psychological process that involves subconsciously screening out large blocks of information that
threaten the person’s beliefs and values is called
(a) Figure ground
(b) Perceptual grouping
(c) Perceptual constancy
(d) Perceptual defense
(e) Perceptual context.
>
86. Which of the following statements is/are true regarding nonverbal communication?
I. Nonverbal communication is also known as ‘silent language’.
II. The most common form of nonverbal communication is the use of body language.
III. Cultural norms affect nonverbal communication.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (II) and (III) above
(e) All (I), (II) and (III) above.
>
87. Content theories of motivation emphasize specific human needs whereas process theories of motivation
focus on
(a) Understanding the thought or cognitive processes that take place within the individual’s mind that act to
affect behavior
(b) Factors within a person that energize behavior
(c) The need for acceptance, association, and communication of the individual
(d) The drive to excel, accomplish challenging tasks, and achieve a standard of excellence
(e) The individual’s ability to control his life and aspects associated with his job.
>
88. Nordstrom is a premier upscale fashion retailer with stores in 23 states around the country. When new
Nordstrom employees receive their orientation materials, they are given a card with the company rules that
states, "Rule #1: Use your good judgment in all situations. There will be no additional rules." Instead of
outlining pages and pages of regulations, Nordstrom believes that employees must be granted the
autonomy to make their own decisions and respond to customers' needs as they see fit. This autonomy
allows that special interaction between salesperson and customer to develop. Based on Hofstede’s cultural
dimensions, under which of the following dimensions is Nordstrom operating?
(a) High uncertainty avoidance
(b) High power distance
(c) Low uncertainty avoidance
(d) Low power distance
(e) High collectivism.
>
89. Which of the following is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience?
(a) Learning
(b) Selectivity
(c) Personality
(d) Consensus
(e) Group think.
>
90. Which sub-process is the most important cognitive aspect of perception and is affected by the
psychological processes of an individual?
(a) Behavior
(b) Consequence
(c) Interpretation
(d) Confrontation
(e) Feedback.
>
16
91. Which of the following theories states that different needs can emerge simultaneously and people can
move backward and forward through the needs continuum as circumstances change?
(a) McClelland’s needs theory
(b) Maslow’s theory
(c) Alderfer’s ERG theory
(d) Herzberg’s two-factor theory
(e) Vroom’s expectancy theory.
>
92. When a team leader rewards high performers, reprimands or otherwise punishes low performers, and
motivates his/her subordinates by reinforcing desired behaviors and extinguishing or punishing undesired
ones, he/she is said to be
(a) Achievement-oriented
(b) Transactional
(c) Supportive
(d) Transformational
(e) Autocratic.
>
93. When Trans World Airlines (TWA) gives the gate attendant the authority to decide which passengers will
be given a free ticket for volunteering to give up their seat for a flight that has been overbooked, is an
example of
(a) Participation
(b) Facilitation
(c) Employee education
(d) Reinforcement
(e) Empowerment.
>
94. Janice and Fran are founders and co-owners of JanFran Jewelry Designs. Their jewelry business generates
approximately $20 million per year from designing, constructing, and selling high-end costume jewelry.
The firm employs 10 designers and 190 craftspeople. Although both earn millions, Janice and Fran operate
their business from open cubicles in the corner of the construction floor. Neither has a secretary. They are
on a first-name basis with all their employees. Indeed, both are rather uncomfortable if they are addressed
by a formal title. At 2%, employee turnover is far below the industry average. Employees appreciate the
extent to which their ideas and suggestions are taken seriously. Based on the information presented here,
Janice and Fran are working in which of the following environment?
(a) High power distance
(b) Low uncertainty avoidance
(c) High uncertainty avoidance
(d) High collectivism
(e) Low power distance.
>
95. Almost every weekend, Jen goes to all the parties she hears about. Once there, she goes around introducing
herself and asking for contact details from those she meets. The next day, she spends hours talking on the
phone to the new friends she’s made, telling them about herself such as her future goal of becoming a
wedding coordinator; in this occupation she can meet new people and always be aware of “who’s marrying
who”. Which motive would Jen score highly on?
(a) Achievement motivation
(b) Status motivation
(c) Power motivation
(d) Affiliation motivation
(e) Affection motivation.
>
96. According to which of the following principles, the perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness and
location of an object remains constant and does not change from one individual to another?
(a) Programmed decisions
(b) Proximity
(c) Similarity
(d) Perceptual constancy
(e) Perceptual selectivity.
>
17
97. Which of the following statements are true about the underlying principles of Total quality management
(TQM)?
I. TQM tries to find better ways of managing different business processes, and not just departments and
functions.
II. TQM uses reliable data and information.
III. TQM aims not only at achieving the financial goals of the company, but also at making the company
a socially responsible entity.
IV. Few selected employees should be involved in efforts to find better ways.
(a) Both (I) and (II) above
(b) Both (I) and (III) above
(c) Both (II) and (III) above
(d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) (II), (III) and (IV) above.
>
98. Which of the following is/are not the hypothesis of path-goal theory?
I. Achievement-oriented leadership will increase followers’ expectancies that will lead to high
performance when tasks are ambiguously structured.
II. Directive leadership will lead to higher employee satisfaction when there is substantive conflict
within a work group.
III. Followers with an external locus of control will be more satisfied with a participative style.
(a) Only (I) above
(b) Only (II) above
(c) Only (III) above
(d) Both (I) and (II) above
(e) Both (II) and (III) above.
>
99. The process by which skilled personnel from advanced nations provide training in requisite skills to the
local workforce, who, in turn train other employees, is known as
(a) Collectivism
(b) Training multiplier effect
(c) Job rotation
(d) Process consultation
(e) Socialization.
>
100
.
George is an accounting supervisor in Procter & Gamble. In a staff meeting, his manager asked George to
give explanation for the lower operational efficiency of his department. He replied that if there is new
computer equipment in accounts department, the efficiency will be much better. Finally the manager
agreed to install new computer equipment in that department. George felt proud and happy. This is an
example of
(a) Maslow’s motivational theory
(b) Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation
(c) Alderfer’s ERG theory of motivation
(d) Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation
(e) Equity theory.
>
END OF QUESTION PAPER
18
Suggested Answers
Organizational Behavior - I (MB1B1): October 2008
Answer Reason
1. C Spokesperson: Represents the organization during the interactions with outside
parties.
Monitor: Receives wide variety of information and serves as nerve center of
internal and external information of the organization.
Disseminator: Transmits information received from outsiders or from other
employees to members of the organization.
Liaison: Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and
information.
< TOP
2. C According to the situational leadership or ‘Life cycle’ model, the maturity level of
the subordinate plays a major role in influencing the leadership style of the
superior. The ability of an individual to carry out a particular task and the extent to
which he is motivated to perform the task constitutes the maturity of an individual.
So leaders have to adopt different leadership styles to deal with different
subordinates.
< TOP
3. D The custodial model of OB takes into consideration the security needs of
employees. A custodial environment gives a psychological reassurance of
economic rewards and benefits.
< TOP
4. B The amount of difference between two social systems or the social systems of two
different countries is referred as cultural distance.
The return of the employees to their home country after working in a foreign
country for a long period of time.
In some cases employees may be encouraged by managers to gain business by any
means. Such employees often face ethical dilemmas.
One of the effective tools in enhancing creativity among decision makers in
organizations.
Unwritten agreement that defines the conditions of each employee’s psychological
involvement with the system.
< TOP
5. B The characteristics of conventional type personality include conforming, efficient,
practical, unimaginative and inflexible. Conventionals prefer rule-regulated,
orderly and unambiguous activities.
< TOP
6. B The employee compares his experiences in the present position with the
experiences of those holding a similar position in the same organization. The
referent comparison is known as self-inside.
< TOP
7. A IBM is giving a chance to employees who have close contacts with customers in
decision making process because, they can know about what the customers expect
from the company. So it can implement its plans through customer focusing. So
IBM is trying to achieve a competitive advantage through people.
< TOP
8. A Figure ground principle simply means that perceived objects stand out as separable
from their general background and perceiver perceptually organize incoming
stimuli receiving maximum attention.
Principle of contrast: Stimuli receiving maximum attention.
Principle of intensity: Intensity of stimulus affects perception.
Closure: Perception as a whole and filling up any gaps.
Halo effect: Drawing general impression, basing on single characteristic.
< TOP
9. E People are not concerned about others’ salaries, instead people are more concerned
about their own salaries than of others. Options (a), (b), (c) and (d) are true about
‘generalizing behavior’ concept.
< TOP
19
Answer Reason
10. B Transformational leaders inspire their followers by communicating to them the
high expectations the organization has of them and assure them of their capacity to
meet those expectations.
< TOP
11. C Self-efficacy refers to a person’s perception of his ability to cope with different
situations as they arise. The role of self-efficacy is vital in helping an individual
cope with tough jobs, making a career choice, learn and achieve something and
adapt to new technology.
< TOP
12. A Instrumentality refers to an individual’s perception of the degree to which a firstlevel
outcome would help in attaining the desired second-level outcome.
Valence refers to the strength of individual’s preference for a particular outcome.
Expectancy refers to the probability that performing a specific action would
produce a first-level outcome.
< TOP
13. A Cognition precedes behavior and serves as an input for a person’s thoughts,
perception, problem solving and information processing.
< TOP
14. D Food habits don’t influence the perceptions of an individual whereas the other
factors will certainly influence the perceptions of individuals.
< TOP
15. C Davis has brought out the importance of organizational behavior in the equation:
Ability x Motivation = Potential Human performance.
< TOP
16. D Machiavellianism refers to the degree to which an individual is practical in his
approach, maintains an emotional distance from others, and believes that ends
justify the means. They do not need to be persuaded to work but instead are able to
successfully persuade others.
< TOP
17. E Short-term employment is more common in American companies. Therefore to
match the quality and productivity of Japanese firms William Ouchi recommended
American companies to offer more secure and better career prospects. Hence
option (e) is the answer.
< TOP
18. B The achievement motive is a person’s desire to perform excellently or to handle
complex or competitive situations successfully.
< TOP
19. E The Illumination experiment, relay assembly room experiment and bank wiring
observation room experiment are the series of experiments involved in
development of Hawthorne studies.
< TOP
20. B Researchers identified different independent dimensions along which an
individual’s leadership behavior could be studied. They are - initiating structure
and consideration.
Initiating structure: The people who score high on this dimension will put pressure
on their subordinates to meet deadlines and maintain certain standards of
performance.
< TOP
21. E Attitudes consist of three components – cognitive, affective and behavioral. The
cognitive component indicates the opinions, values or beliefs of an individual
about something. The affective component represents the feelings of a person
towards something. The behavioral component of a person indicates the intention
of a person to behave in a particular way.
< TOP
22. B Anthropology: It is the study of mankind, especially of its origin, development,
customs and beliefs.
< TOP
23. D Quality circles are voluntary groups of people trained in statistical techniques and
problem-solving skills who come together to generate ideas to improve the quality
of work and productivity of organization. This concept was first proposed by W.
Edwards Deming in Japan.
< TOP
24. A ‘Job enrichment’ by Frederick Herzberg refers to ‘Vertical expansion of jobs’. < TOP
20
Answer Reason
25. D Continuity principle states that a person tends to perceive the extension of a
stimulus. Continuity has a major impact on the systems design of an organizational
structure.
< TOP
26. B If an employee is low in ability but high in willingness to perform, the manager
has to use selling style of leadership.
< TOP
27. E All three statements are true about Human relations. < TOP
28. C Conscientiousness refers to the extent to which a person is responsible and
achievement oriented and limits the number of goals set for himself, devote his
time and energy to those goals and often succeed in achieving the goals.
< TOP
29. D Emily has the desire to handle complex or competitive situations successfully like
starting up her own business. So she is high in achievement motive. But she
doesn’t have characteristics of a leader and political aspects of organization which
are the characteristics of power motive. So she is low in power motive.
< TOP
30. A Psychology is a social science that helps explain, measure and remodel human
behavior.
< TOP
31. C Statements (I) and (II) are true.
‘Suggestion Programs’ are another form of employee participation.
‘Suggestion Programs’ provide many useful ideas but they ensure participation
only to a limited extent.
‘Suggestion Programs’ do not facilitate group problem solving and teamwork.
< TOP
32. B Type A individuals set ambitious deadlines for themselves and work under
continuous time pressure. These individuals constantly experience moderate to
high levels of stress. They tend to rely on past experience to solve problems and do
not feel the need to be innovative in developing solutions to new problems. They
make poor decisions.
< TOP
33. D If an individual observes that responding in a particular way to a particular
stimulus is rewarding, he will tend to behave similarly in the future as well. This
type of learning is called instrumental learning.
< TOP
34. B The important variables in Porter-Lawler model model are effort, performance,
rewards and satisfaction.
< TOP
35. C Except reputation all others options are the external attention factors. < TOP
36. C Statements I and II are true.
I. Personality is not a result of the generic factors alone. To some extent, an
individual can learn and adopt the desired personality.
II. People behave in different ways depending on the situation.
III. Both personality traits and the situational factors have an impact on human
behavior.
< TOP
37. B Exclusionary organization allows the domination of one group over others in the
workforce on the basis of certain criteria like age, gender, education or race. Such
organizations practice exclusionary hiring and other forms of discrimination.
These organizations violate the law.
< TOP
38. B According to Hall, in the exploration stage, the individual seeks an identity for
himself, attempts to understand himself and his personality, and tries out various
roles in his career. At this stage, the employee is relatively unstable in his career
and less productive as he keeps switching between various jobs in search of the
right one.
< TOP
39. C Statements (I) and (II) describe the control theory. Statement (III) is incorrect since
coercive power is based on fear.
< TOP
21
Answer Reason
40. B Mentor acts as a coach and as a role model. He offers emotional support and as a
sponsor, a mentor intervenes on behalf of the protégé.
< TOP
41. E The halo effect: At times, people draw a general impression about an individual
based on a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, aggressiveness,
etc.
< TOP
42. B Job sharing allows two or more people to share a traditional forty-hour-a-week job. < TOP
43. E Continuance commitment is influenced by the costs that could accrue to the
employee if he leaves the organization.
Affective commitment is concerned with the employee’s emotional attachment and
involvement with the organization.
Normative commitment refers to the extent to which an employee feels obligated
to continue in the organization.
< TOP
44. D Gallantry awards are given to fulfill esteem needs. These awards are recognition
for the extra-ordinary performance. So, option (d) is the correct answer.
< TOP
45. C Hiring and promoting women and minorities to show their token presence and not
with intent of developing a true multicultural organization.
< TOP
46. B In order to identify critical behaviors for O.B. Mod, the following questions need
to have an affirmative answer:
? Can the behavior be directly measured?
Does it affect the performance outcome?
< TOP
47. C Participative leadership: The leader discusses problems with subordinates and
seeks their suggestions before making a decision.
Directive: The leader clearly tells his subordinates what is expected from them,
gives them work schedules and instructs them on ‘how’ to do the task.
Supportive: The leader attempts to address the needs and problems of his
subordinates.
Achievement-oriented: The leader attempts to develop his subordinates by giving
them challenging tasks and higher responsibilities, and encouraging them to
perform at their best.
< TOP
48. D Flextime: It gives more autonomy to employees with respect to their work timings.
Employees have to work only during business timings. It gives them the freedom
to work in accordance with their lifestyles. The employees of the organization
have to work for a minimum period of eight hours daily, anytime within the office
hours.
< TOP
49. C The knowledge function: Attitudes provide a standard of reference which allows
people to understand and explain their environment.
< TOP
50. B Emphasizing organization to provide equal opportunity for all employees is mainly
responsible for emergence of ‘Diversity in organizations’.
< TOP
51. B Transmitting the message: It involves the transmission of the message using an
appropriate medium of communication such as memo, phone call or personal
interaction.
< TOP
52. A Only statement (I) is true about general motives.
A motive is considered to be a general motive if it is not learned, but is also not
based on physiological needs.
General motives stimulate tension within the individual.
Hunger, thirst, sleep etc are primary motives.
< TOP
22
Answer Reason
53. E Emotional dissonance refers to the conflict between the emotions an individual
experiences and the emotions he needs to express to conform to organizational
norms.
< TOP
54. D The interactive communication constitutes informal channels of communication
and has a central role to play in organizations.
In interactive communication, the flow of information is not confined to a specific
path.
< TOP
55. B Classical conditioning essentially involves learning a conditioned response by
associating a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned one.
< TOP
56. B Self-managing teams: The group decision approach is more formally known as the
use of ‘self-managing teams’, also called socio-technical teams. The extreme form
of this method of participation is operating by consensus, which reflects many
ideas of Theory Z.
< TOP
57. B Investigative: Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing and
understanding.
< TOP
58. A Various participative programs usually result in favorable outcomes both for the
employees as well as the organization.
Organization outcomes: Higher output, better quality, creativity, innovation
Employees’ outcomes: Acceptance, self-efficacy, less stress, satisfaction
< TOP
59. B Performance-reward linkage is defined by Vroom’s expectancy theory, as the
degree to which an individual believes that working at a particular level will
generate a desired outcome.
< TOP
60. B In lateral communication, managers communicate with people in other
departments outside their own chain of command.
Upward communication: It is possible only when organizations empower their
employees and allow them to participate freely in decision making.
Grapevine communication supplements the formal channels of communication and
provides information which is not communicated through the latter.
Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower
level is downward communication. Downward communication doesn’t have to be
oral or involve face-to-face contact.
Network is a form of interactive communication. A network is a group of people
who develop and maintain contact with each other to exchange information of
common interest in an informal manner.
< TOP
61. B According to the principle of closure, a person may sometimes perceive a whole,
where it does not exist while sometimes, a person may not be able to perceive a
whole although one exists.
< TOP
62. D In decline stage, the individual evaluates his life and career and tries to convince
himself that he made the right decisions in his life.
< TOP
63. B One could describe negative reinforcement as a form of social blackmail, which
makes a person behave in a particular manner.
< TOP
64. A Employees, who are actively involved in lateral communication, have access to
large amounts of information outside their department, which they filter and
communicate to others. These employees can be referred to as Boundary spanners.
Mentors – assist employees
Wedge-Drivers – a type of rumor which is negative and divisive in nature, fueled
by feelings of aggression, hatred etc.
< TOP
65. D The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others is
known as personality.
< TOP
23
Answer Reason
66. B Managers generally do not use the grapevine as a source of information. However,
they try to keep track of the information passing through grapevine through their
loyal subordinates. This helps managers identify the issues that cause anxiety to
employees.
< TOP
67. A The way in which people explain the cause for their own or others’ behavior is
referred to as attribution.
< TOP
68. D Internals are highly achievement-oriented and search extensively for the required
information before making a decision.
Externals are better suited for jobs involving routine and structured tasks.
Internals are the individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
< TOP
69. B An Ombudsperson resolves problems quickly without going through lengthy
channels (Supervisor – HOP – Persons – managers).
< TOP
70. A (I) Operant conditioning finds greater application in human learning than
classical conditioning
(II) In operant conditioning, it is the environmental event following the behavior
that determines the strength and frequency of the behavior
Hence statements (I) and (II) are false.
< TOP
71. C Impression motivation is particularly applicable in organizations where employees
try to control the perceptions of their superiors about them.
Impression construction refers to the methods adopted by a person to create the
specific impression that he wants. The impression may be related to various factors
such as personal characteristics, attitudes and values.
< TOP
72. B Middle-management committees are also termed as ‘multiple management’. It is a
method of improving the participation of the middle-level managers in the
decision-making activities of the organization. A major advantage of this program
is that ideas are carefully scrutinized before they are presented to the top
management.
< TOP
73. B Autocratic-II : A leader obtains relevant information from subordinates and then
attempts to find the solution to the problem. He does not reveal the problem or
seek the advice of subordinates in finding a solution or making a decision.
< TOP
74. A Agreeableness refers to the extent to which a person subjugates his/her interests
for the sake of the group and gives importance to maintaining harmony and do not
insist that others agree with what he/she says or follow his/her suggestions.
< TOP
75. C Horizontal communication is necessary to ensure that all the departments in an
organization act in a coordinated manner to achieve organizational goals. The need
for such communication is more obvious in complex organizations with hundreds
of departments and sub-divisions.
< TOP
76. E When a perceiver judges some person based on his perception about the group to
which the person belongs, it is known as stereotyping.
< TOP
77. B Observational learning is the essential component of vicarious or modeling
processes and it takes place in two steps.
? Through observation a person acquires a mental picture of an act carried out
by someone and its consequences.
? Then the person enacts the acquired image.
< TOP
78. B Attitude questionnaire is one of the methods of making upward communication
more effective. All other options are barriers to effective communication.
< TOP
79. B Country club management: Managers who score high on concern for people and
low on concern for production.
< TOP
24
Answer Reason
80. B A punishment may be defined as a action that weakens a particular behavior and
reduces its frequency.
< TOP
81. D The following are the personality determinants:
? Heredity
? Environment
? Situation.
< TOP
82. E Suggestion boxes, junior boards, quality circles, informal involvement of
employees, etc., are participative techniques used in decision-making. Club
organization is one of the stages of development of a multicultural organization.
< TOP
83. E Consistency refers to a pattern of behavior, which may be relatively stable or
unstable and shows whether a person behaves similarly in a similar situation or if a
particular behavior is just an infrequent occurrence.
< TOP
84. A An expatriate manager evaluates other cultures on the basis of how similar they are
to his/her own culture. Then such manager finds difficulties to adapt to a culture
different from his own. Such a tendency is referred to as ‘Ethnocentrism’
< TOP
85. D A person may establish a defense against some stimuli or situational events
because they may be clashing with his personal values or culture or may be
threatening, in nature. This is known as perceptual defense.
< TOP
86. E All three statements are true about nonverbal communication. < TOP
87. A The process theories of motivation deal with the cognitive antecedents that go into
motivation or effort, and more specifically, with the way the cognitive antecedents
of an individual relate to one another.
< TOP
88. C The rules given to Nordstrom employees couldn't be simpler, which is an
indication that employees can tolerate greater levels of uncertainty. Additionally,
employees are given a great deal of latitude regarding how to respond to situations
that arise. This increases their level of autonomy, but also makes the decisionmaking
process more uncertain and more risky. Nordstrom employees are
operating under conditions of low uncertainty avoidance, meaning they feel
relatively comfortable dealing with uncertain conditions. Under conditions of high
uncertainty avoidance, organizations tend to have extensive rules, regulations, and
procedures with careful delineation of the work each person is responsible for
doing. Employees show a propensity for low-risk decision making.
< TOP
89. A Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of
experience.
< TOP
>
90. C The next sub process, interpretation is the most important cognitive aspect of
perception and is affected by the psychological processes of an individual.
< TOP
>
91. C According to ERG theory, different needs can emerge simultaneously and people
can move backward and forward through the needs continuum as circumstances
change.
< TOP
>
92. B A transactional leader believes that people can be motivated by recognizing their
accomplishments and designing rewards appropriate for their level of efforts and
performance.
< TOP
>
93. E Empowerment refers to the increased involvement of employees in organizational
processes and decision-making.
< TOP
>
25
Answer Reason
94. E Power distance describes the degree of inequality among people that is considered
to be normal. Cultures with high power distance seek to maintain differences in
power and wealth whereas cultures with low power distance seek to eliminate
those inequalities. There are several factors that indicate Janice and Fran operate in
a low-power-distance culture. They prefer to be called by their first names rather
than a formal title. They eschew the trappings of authority. They operate the
business, not from big fancy offices, but from open cubicles. Finally, they value
the input of their employees in the decision process. Giving employees genuine
input into important decisions is an organizational practice typical of low-powerdistance
countries.
< TOP
>
95. D People with a high need for affiliation exhibit a high degree of concern for social
relationships.
< TOP
>
96. D According to perceptual constancy, the perception of elements like size, shape,
color, brightness and location of an object remains constant and does not change
from one individual to another.
< TOP
>
97. D Statements (I), (II) and (III) are true.
TQM tries to find better ways of managing different business processes and not
just departments and functions.
TQM uses reliable data and information.
TQM aims not only at achieving the financial goals of the company, but also at
making the company a socially responsible entity.
All employees should be involved in efforts to find better ways.
< TOP
>
98. C Followers with an external locus of control will be more satisfied with a directive
style.
Statement (I) and (II) are the hypothesis of path-goal theory.
< TOP
>
99. B The process by which skilled personnel from advanced nations provide training in
requisite skills to the local workforce, who, in turn train other employees, is known
as training multiplier effect.
< TOP
>
100. B Motivators and Hygiene factors were the two factors in Herzberg’s two-factor
theory.
People take pride in the work they are doing and feel good if the facilities or
equipment provided to them are modern and in good condition. This comes under
the hygiene factors.





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