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B pharmacy second year first semester osmania syllabus


Posted Date: 05-Jan-2010  Last Updated:   Category: Syllabus    
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B pharmacy second year osmania syllabus Theory and Practicals



PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – I

Subject Code : PYT 2.101 Sessionsal : 30

Periods / week :4 Examination : 70

Nature of exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs

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UNIT – I: STRUCTURE AND REACTIVITY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES:

Hybrid orbitals, Molecular orbitals and Covalent bond, Bond angles, Heterolysis, Polarity of covalent bond, Polarity of Molecules, Dipole moments, Intermolecular forces, Boiling Point, Melting Point, Solubility,

Electronic effects: Inductive effect, Electromeric or Mesomeric effect and Resonance.

Acidity and Basicity of Organic Molecules, Types of Organic Reagents and Reactions.

Isomerism ( Structural and Spatial) and Tautomerism.

Reaction Progress – Activation Energy, Energy diagrams of Reactants and Products.

UNIT – II: ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS:

Source, Nomenclature, General Methods of Preparation of Alkanes, Alkenes Alkadienes and Alkynes; solubility of Hydrocarbons. Heats of combustion or Heats of Hydrogenation, Homologous series, Free radical reactions of Alkanes (Halogenation), Catalytic reduction and Electrophilic addition reactions of Alkenes and Alkadienes, Markonikov’s Addition, Anti Markonikov’s Addition, Peroxide effect or Kharasch effect, Cis-Trans reduction of alkynes, Acidity of 1-Alkynes. Electrophilic addition reactions of alkynes, stability of conjugated alkadienes and their addition reactions.

General methods of preparation of Cycloalkanes: Nomenclature, ring size, stability, Bayer’s strain theory, Sachse – Mohr theory, Puckered rings, Congifguration and Conformations of Cycloalkanes, axial and equatorial bonds, Cis-trans Isomers. Reactions of Cycloalkanes.

UNIT – III: HALOGEN AND HYDROXY COMPOUNDS:

Nomenclature, General Methods of preparation, Relative reactivity of Halides and Hydroxy Compounds, primary, secondary and tertiary classes, Nucleophilic substitution reactions (SN1 and SN2) – Walden inversion, Elimination reactions (E1 and E2) – Sayetzeff’s rule. Nucleophilic substitution Vs Elimination. Oxidation of alcohols;

Ethers: Nomenclature, Properties and Synthesis (Williamson`s synthesis and Ziesel’s Method).

UNIT – IV:

A) CARBONYL COMPOUNDS (ALDEHYDES AND KETONES)

Nomenclature, General Methods of Preparation, relative reactivities of Carbonyl Compounds, Nucleophilic addition reactions, Addition-Elimination reactions - Schiffs bases, oxidative reactions.

B) CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND ACID DERIVATIVES

(ACID HALIDES, ANHYDRIDES, ESTERS AND AMIDES)

Nomenclature, General Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic acids, Relative acidity of Carboxylic acids, Action of alkalis, salt formation, Alpha - Halogenation and functional (Nucleophilic substitution) reactions of Carboxylic acids and methods of preparation of acid derivatives, Hydrolysis of acid derivatives, Reactivity and synthetic applications of malonic ester and aceto-acetic ester.

UNIT – V: NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

A) NITRO COMPOUNDS

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, Acidity of Nitroalkanes.

B) AMINES:

Nomenclature, primary, secondary and tertiary types, Relative Basicity of amines, Reactions of amines, Action of Nitrous acid, alkylation and acylation, Nucleophilicity of amines, Hinsberg’s method of separation of amines.

Aryldiazonium salts – Reactions (synthetic applications) of aryldiazonium salts.

Examination : One question from each unit with internal choice.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. ‘Organic Chemistry’ by T.T.Morrison & R.Boyd. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.

2. Organic Chemistry by FERGUSON

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. The Fundamental Principles of organic chemistry, by I.L.Finar, ELBS, London.

2. Organic chemistry by Cram & Hammond.

3. Text Books of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, by T.M.Atherden, Bentley and Drivers, Oxford University Press, London.

PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING – I

Subject code : PYT 2.102 Sessional : 30

Periods / week : 4 Examination : 70

Nature of exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs

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UNIT – I:

Materials of Construction: Factors affecting the material selection for Pharmaceutical plants.

Ferrous Metals: Cast iron steels and Stainless steels,

Non-Ferrous Metals: Copper, Aluminum, Lead, Tin, Silver, Nickel, Zinc, Platinum, Chromium and their important alloys.

Nonmetals: Glass, Stoneware, Stone slate, Brick, Concrete, Asbestos, Rubber, Timber, Plastics.

Corrosion and its prevention: Types of corrosion, factors influencing corrosion, theories of corrosion, methods of prevention of corrosion.

Definition of unit operations, unit processes. Steady and unsteady states, dimensionless equations, dimensional formulas, dimensional analysis, and dimensionless groups.

UNIT – II:

Fluid Flow: Fluid static’s, manometers, types of flow, Bernoulli’s theorem, losses in mechanical energy of flowing fluids, measurement of fluids flow rate – orifice, venturi, pitot and rotameter, flow meters.

Heat Transfer : Nature of heat flow,

Conduction: - Fourier’s law, thermal conductivity, compound resistance in series, heat flow through a cylinder – mean radius and mean area.

Convection: - Natural and forced convection, temperature gradients in forced convection, surface and over all coefficients. Parallel current and counter current flow.

Radiation: – black body, Stefan Boltzaman law, and gray body. Heaters, heat interchangers, scraped surface exchangers, extended surface equipment.

Steam as heating medium: – properties and uses of steam traps, vacuum pumps, condensers, entrainment separators, foam and its prevention.

UNIT – III: Transportation of materials

Solids: – Classification, principles of construction & uses of different types of conveyers, detailed study of belt, screw and pneumatic conveyers.

Fluids: - Pipes, tubes, joints, fittings, valves, Different types of reciprocating & rotary pumps, air lift pumps, screw pumps, monopumps, peristaltic pumps.

Gases: - Fans, Blowers, types of compressors, ejectors, vacuum pumps, jet pumps.

UNIT – IV:

Humidification, dehumidification and air conditioning: Definition of various terms, wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, humidity chart, determination of humidity, methods of increasing and decreasing humidity. Air conditioning – applications in pharmacy.

Refrigeration: Definition; compression and absorption; types of refrigeration cycles; coefficient of performance, refrigerants and their choice; Brine systems, load and applications in pharmacy.

UNIT – V:

Filtration: Laboratory filtration equipment, classification of industrial filters, sand filters, chamber press, plate & frame filter press, brief description of leaf filters, rotary continuous filters, top feed filters, streamline & meta filters, choice of filtration unit. Membrane filters, Air filtration. Filter operation – effect of pressure, filter aids, Filter media, factors affecting rate of filtration, pretreatment of materials. Filtration theory – Mechanism of filtration, Kozeny equation and its limitations.

Centrifugation: Theoretical considerations, large scale centrifuges classification, perforated & non perforated basket centrifuges, disc centrifuge bowls, tubular bowl centrifuges, horizontal centrifuges, continuous centrifuges, vertical solid bowl centrifuge, laboratory equipment.

Examination : One question from each unit with internal choice.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Pharmaceutical Engineering by Prof. K.Samba Murthy

2. Introduction to Chemical Engineering by W.L.Badger & Banchero, Macrohill Int. book company, London.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Elements of Chemical Engineering – Mc Cabe & Smith 4th edn. 2000.

2. Handbook of Chemical Engineering by Perry.

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – I

(CHEMICAL ANALYSIS)

Subject code : PYT 2.103 Sessional : 30

Periods / week : 4 Examination : 70

Nature of exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs

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This course shall cover the theoretical basis of analysis with special reference to methods of assay mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia.

UNIT – I:

Computation of analytical results – Significant figures, Concept of error, precision, accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, detection limit, linearity and range, ruggedness, standard deviation – Rejection of doubtful values with special reference to volumetric and gravimetric analysis. Calibration of analytical equipment.

Fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards.

UNIT – II:

Physico-chemical concepts required for analysis such as electrolytic dissociation, Modern theory of acids, bases and salts – Bronstead – Lowry theory, Lewis electronic theory; chemical equilibrium, pH and buffer action, solubility product, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and amphoteric substances.

Principles of Neutralization reactions; Theory of indicators and Neutralization indicators.

UNIT – III:

Principles of oxidation-reduction titration’s, redox, self-indicators and their use, reactions in pharmaceutical analysis precipitation.

Principles of gravimetric analysis – typical methods involving precipitation, coagulation, digestion, drying procedures, co-precipitation.

UNIT – IV:

Theory and applications of complexometric titration’s, argentometry, iodometry, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, EDTA, non-aqueous tritrations redox titration’s, ammonium sulphate, titanous chloride. Principles of gas analysis.

UNIT – V:

Stoichiometry of Ionic equations and Solutions: The Mole concept, Measuring of Moles of Elements and Compounds; Percentage Composition; Emperical and Molecular Formula; Balancing of Chemical Equations; Some analytical problems and calculations based on mass balance, limiting reactant, theoretical yield and percentage yield;

Examination : One question from each unit with internal choice.

TEXT BOOKS :

1. Pharmaceutical Chemistry, L.M.Antherden, Bentleys & Drivers, Oxford Univ. Press, U.K.

2. Vogel’s Quantitative Inorganic Analysis by Bassett, R.C.Denny & B.H.Jeffery, ELBS, U.K.,

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vol I & II by A.H.Beckett and J.B.Stanlake, The Athlone Press of the University of London.

PHARMACEUTICAL. MICROBIOLOGY

Subject code : PYT 2.104 Sessional : 30

Period / week : 4 Examination : 70

Nature of exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs

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UNIT – I:

Introduction to the Science of Microbiology and Microscopy. Classification of the following groups of microbes and their macro and micro morphology and taxonomy. Different methods of bacterial count. Nutrition, Cultivation, Isolation, Identification and Preservation of pure cultures. Organisms important in Pharmacy.

UNIT – II:

Different biochemical reactions employed in identification of organisms, stains and staining, tolerance, Physiology and reproduction of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, yeasts and viruses. Microbial genetics and Variation : Introduction, genetic organization, mutation, mutagens, different types of mutants, physical and chemical mutagenesis repair mechanism and their isolation.

UNIT – III:

Disinfections: Factors influencing disinfections, dynamics of disinfections, different groups of disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation and applications.

Sterilization: Premises and Equipment, detailed evaluation and application of different sterilization methods. Sterilization indicators and their importance.

UNIT – IV:

Microbial attack and host defense, virulence and pathogen city, primary and specific defensive mechanisms of body.

General Principles of immunology and their applications. Immunogenetics: Classification and principles of different types of immunity, Immune systems – humoral immunity, cellular immunity and tolerance. Phagocytosis, Hypersensitivity and other reactions.

General Principles of Serology and Chemical nature of antigens, antibodies. Different antigen – antibody reactions and their applications. Precipitation, agglutination and their significance in diagnosis and diagnostic tests. Different antigens of bacterial cells, monophasic and biphasic variation. Bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins, Toxoids.

UNIT – V:

General principles of infection and communicable diseases. Significant symptoms, General modes of transmission of the following epidemic and endemic diseases.

a) Tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid. b) Diphtheria, whooping cough. c) Plague, malaria, filariasis, infuenza. d) Infective hepatitis, poliomyelitis.

Systematic studies of a few selected organisms – E.Coli, Pencillium sps, Streptomyces sps, Saccharomyces sps. Microbiology of water and milk.

Examination : One question from each unit with internal choice.

TEXT BOOKS :

1. Text book of Microbiology by Pelezair & Reid

2. Text book of Microbiology – Probisher

COMMUNICATIVE ENGLISH

Subject Code: PYT.2.105 Sessional : 30

Periods/Week: 3 Examination : 70

Nature of Examination: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs

UNIT – I:

Role and Importance of Communication; Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication; Group Communication, Effective Communication; Barriers to communication; Communication Mediums; Participating in discussions, Conduct of Seminars, Conferences etc., Making Presentations through collection, evaluation, organizing the information; Interacting with learners and teachers; Role of Wit and Humor in Communication

UNIT – II

Spoken English Vs Written English; Formal / Informal English (one way/two way); British/American/Indian English; How to introduce one self and others; How to tender apology; How to thank in different ways; Greetings; Some Polite Expressions; Agreements and Disagreements; How to use a dictionary; How to use a Thesaurus; Vocabulary Development; Synonyms and antonyms; Single word substitutes; comprehensions;

Unit - III

Communication through Letters; Official and Personal Letters; Letters of complaint; Letters of Enquiries; and Responses; Writing Memos, Circulars and Notices; What to avoid while writing; Writing Paragraph, Document and Scientific/Technical Report; Drafting & Delivering a Speech;

UNIT – IV

Grammar in English: Tenses; Voice; Articles; Direct and Indirect speech; Degrees of Comparison; Common errors in English made by Indian Learners of English

Concepts of Learning and Listening: Types and Methods of Learning and Listening; Learning and Listening of Knowledge, Attitudes, Skills and Practices

Unit – V:

The following Four Essays from “Selections from Modern English” prose Edited by Haladhar Panda are Prescribed.

1. “Our Own Civilization” - C.EM. Joad

2. “ Andrew Carnegie” - E.H Carter

3. “ The Secret of work” - Swami Vivekananda

4. “The Generation Gap’ - Benjamin Spock

Examination : One question from each unit with internal choice.

BOOKS:

1. “Business Correspondence and report Writing” R.C.Sharma and Krishna Mohan, Tata McGraw Hill Publishers, New Delhi

2. “Communicative English” E. Suresh kumar, Raj Kamal Publications, Hyderabad

3. “Selections of Modern English Prose” Ed. By Haladhar Panda, Published by Universities Press 9India) Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad

PHARMACEUTICAL. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – I

Subject code : PYP 2.106 Sessional : 25

Periods / week : 4 Examination : 50

Nature of exam: Practical Exam Duration: 4 Hrs

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LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Organic Chemistry laboratory techniques.

2. Experiments in simple qualitative analysis including preparation of derivatives.

1. Nitration : Preparation of Nitrobenzene from Benzene.

2. Halogenation : Preparation of p-Bromo acetanilide from Acetanilide.

3. Oxidation : Preparation of Benzoic acid from toluene or Benzylchloride

4. Reduction : Preparation of m-Nitroaniline from m-Dinitro Benzene.

5. Esterification : Preparation of n-Butyl acetate from n-Butyl alchol.

6. Acetylation : Preparation of Acetanilide from Aniline.

7. Etherification : Preparation of ß-Naphthyl methyl ether from ß-Napthol.

8. Hydrolysis (Saponification ) : Preparation of Benzoic Acid from Methyl Benzoate OR Preparation of Benzoic acid from Benzamide.

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – I

Subject code : PYP 2.107 Sessional : 25

Periods / week : 4 Examination : 50

Nature of exam: Practical Exam Duration: 4 Hrs

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LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Calibration of Weights and Pipette and Burette.

2. Standardization of acid, bases, perchloric acid, potassium permanganate EDTA.

3. Experiments on Acidimetry and Alkalimetry.

4. Experiments on Oxidation and reduction reaction.

5. Experiments on Iodimetry and Iodometry.

6. Experiments based on complelxometric titration.

7. Non-aqeous titration using perchloric Acid.

8. Experiments based on gravimetry, silver salt method.

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY

Subject code : PYP 2.108 Sessional : 25

Period / week : 4 Examination : 50

Nature of exam: Practical Exam Duration: 4 Hrs

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LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Basic equipments used in Microbiology Laboratory

2. Sterilization by dry heat and moist heat technique

3. Preparation of various media.

4. Aseptic transfer technique

5. Staining techniques

6. Study of bacterial motility by hanging drop technique

7. Biochemical reactions for identification of bacteria

8. Isolation of pure cultures

9. Enumeration & isolation of bacteria from air.

10. Bacteriology of milk and water and

11. Preservation of cultures


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