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B pharmacy third year second semester osmania syllabus


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B pharmacy third year second semester osmania syllabus - Theory and Practicals



PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)

Subject Code :PYT 3.201 Sessional: 30
Periods/week : 4 Examination: 70
Nature of Exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs
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UNIT – I: POLY FUNCTIONAL NATURAL PRODUCTS
Carbohydrates: Introduction, Definition, Classification, Isolation, General Properties (including isomerism) and Pharmaceutical importance of Carbohydrates, Chemistry (Structure, Nomenclature and Reactions) of glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, cellulose and starch.
Oils & Fats: Introduction, Definition, Classification, Isolation, General properties and Pharmaceutical importance of oils and fats. Chemistry (Structure, Nomenclature and Reactions) of Oils and Fats and analyse according to Pharmacopoeial methods
UNIT – II: AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS
Introduction, Definition, Classification, Isolation, General properties and Pharmaceutical importance of amino acids and their relationship to proteins and polypeptides.
Chemistry of Protein Hormones: Insulin, Oxytocins, Thyroid and anti-thyroid drugs
UNIT – III: FLAVANOIDS AND TERPENOIDS
Flavonoids: Sources, Uses, Chemistry and General methods of structural determination (chemical & spectral analysis) of Amygdalin, arbution and quercetin
Terpenoids: Isoprene rule, Special Isoprene Rule for terpenes, General methods of isolation and. Chemistry of citral, menthol and camphor.
UNIT – IV: ALKALOIDS – PURINE AND XANTHINE DERIVATIVES
Introduction, Definition, Occurrence, Classification, Isolation, General properties and Pharmaceutical importance of Alkaloids. General methods of extraction, structure elucidation and Chemistry (Structure, Nomenclature and Reactions) of ephedrine, atropine, papaverine and quinine and also Caffeine, Theophylline, Theobromine and uric acid.
UNIT – V: STEROIDS
Introduction, Definition, Occurrence, Classification, Isolation, General properties and Pharmaceutical importance of `Sterols: colour reactions of cholesterol, stigmasterol, ergosterol. Importance & general concepts of bile acids. Steroidal saponins: Diosgenin and hecogenin. Androgens, Estrogens, Progestational agents, Steroidal contraceptives. Adrenocorticoids, Deoxycorticosterone, Cortisone, Prednisone, Aldosterone. Cardiac Glycosides of Digitalis other Cardiac drugs, Strophanthus and Squill.
Examination: One question from each unit with internal choice.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Organic Chemistry, Vol.II by I.L. Finar, The English Language Book Society, London.
2. Natural Products Vol.I & II by O.P. Agarwal Goel publications – Meerut.
REFERENCES :
1. R.T. Morrison and R.N. Boyd, Organic Chemistry, Allyn and Bacon, Ine., Boston
2. Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry, M.E. – Wolff, Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York.
3. F.G.Mann & B. Saunders, Practical Organic Chemistry Longamans Green & Co. Ltd., U.K
4. R. M. Acheson, An Introduction to the Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Interscience NY.

PHARMACOLOGY – II

Subject Code: PYT 3.202 Sessional : 30
Periods/week: 04 Examination : 70
Nature of Exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs
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UNIT – I: CHEMOTHERAPY OF INFECTIONS AND CANCER
Basic Principles of Chemotherapy; Systemic Pharmacological study of Anti-bacterial, Anti-viral, Anti-fungal, Anti-protozoal and Anti-helmenthic drugs; Cancer Chemotherapy

UNIT – II: PHARMACOLOGY OF AUTOCOIDS: LOCAL HORMONES
Anti-histamines: Histamine, Serotonim and ergot alkaloids; Vasoactive principles; Eicosanoids; Prostagladins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrines and related compounds. Nitric oxide, Donors and inhibitors. Para Drugs acting on blood and blood forming agents – Coagulants, Anti-coagulants, Haematinics (iron, vitamin-B12, Folic acid) and Thrombolytic Agents.

UNIT – III: PHARMACOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Systemic Pharmacological study of Pituitary Hormones, Sex Hormones, Oral Contraceptives, Oxytocics and Uterine relaxants; Pharmacology of thyroid and Anti-thyroid drugs, Insulin, Oral hypoglycemics, Glucagon and Adrenocortico steroids;

UNIT – IV: BIOETHICS AND BIOASSAY OF SOME SELECTIVE DRUGS
Principles of Bioethics, Bioethics of Animals used in Bioassay studies; Principles of Bioassays; Official Bioassays; Biological assay of anti-haemophilic fraction, Heparin sodium, Chorionic gonadotropin, Corticotropin, Insulin, Oxytocin, Vasopressin and Adrenaline; Biological assay of diptheria anti-toxin, anti-rabies vaccine, tetanus anti-toxin and old tuberculin vaccine;

UNIT – V: TOXICOLOGY OF DRUGS AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Principles of Toxicology; Definition of Poison; General principles of treatment of poisoning with special reference to barbutirates, Opium and Organophosphorus toxicity;
Treatment of Poisoning for the following toxins: Methyl Alcohol, Heavy metals, Paracetamol and Digitalis
Introduction to Clinical pharmacology and Phases of clinical trials;
Examination: One question from each unit with internal choice.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, K.D. Tripati., Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
2. Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics., R.S.Saathoskar and S.D. Bandarkar., Popular Prakashan, Mumbai.,
3. Text Book of Pharmacology by Rang and Dale
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Goodman and Gilman’s: “The Pharmacological basis of Therapeutics” by Joel G. Hardman and Lee E. Limbard., Pergamon Press
2. Lewis’s Pharmacology by J. Crossland., Churchil Livingstone Publications
3. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology by Katzung B.G., Prentice-Hall
4. Clinical pharmacology by Lanzence

PHYSICAL PHARMACY – II

Subject Code : PYT.3.203 Sessional : 30
Periods / Week: 4 Examination : 70
Nature of Exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs

UNIT – I: SOLUBILITY AND DISTRIBUTION PHENOMENA
Definitions, Expressions, Phase rule, Solvent – Solute interactions – polar solvents and semipolar solvents, Solubility of gases in liquids – effect of pressure and temperature, Salting out, Effect of chemical reactions, Solubility calculations. Solubility of liquids in liquids – ideal and real solutions, Complete and partial miscibility, Influence of foreign substances, Three component systems, Dielectric constant and solubility. Solubility of solids in liquids – Ideal and non ideal solutions solvation and association in solutions. Solubility of salts in water, Solubility of slightly soluble and week electrolytes, Calculating solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by pH, Influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs, Combined effect of solvents. Distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents – Effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on partition & extraction, Solubility and partition coefficients, Preservative action of weak acids in emulsions, Drug action and partition coefficients.

UNIT – II: CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rates and orders of reactions – Rate, order of reaction, Molecularly, Specific rate constant, Units of basic rate constants, Mathematical treatment of rates.
Apparent zero order kinetics. First order reactions. Second order reactions. Determination of order of a reaction. Elementary idea complex reactions. Specific and general acid base catalysis. Influence of temperature and other factors on reaction rates – Effect of solvents, Ionic strength, Dielectric constant, Catalysts and light. Decomposition and destabilization of medicinal agents against hydrolysis, Oxidation. Kinetics in the solid state. Accelerated stability analysis.

UNIT – III: INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA
Introduction, liquid interphases – Surface and interfacial tensions, Surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, Spreading coefficient. Adsorption at liquid interfaces – Surface active agents, Systems of hydrophilic – Lipophilic classification, Solubilization and detergency. Types of monolayer at liquid surfaces, applications of amphiphiles. Absorption at solid interfaces – Solid/Gas interface – Solid/Liquid interface. Electric properties of interfaces – Electric double layer, Nernst and zeta potentials.

UNIT – IV: COLLOIDS AND MICROMERITICS
Dispersed systems, Size and shape of colloidal particles – pharmaceutical application, Types – Lipophilic, Lipophobic and Association colloids, Comparison of properties of colloidal sols; Optical, Kinetic and Electric properties of colloids, Solubilization gels – Structure, Properties and Applications.
Particle size and size distribution – average particle size, particle size distribution, number and weight distributions, Particle number; Methods for determining particle size – optical microscopy, sieving, Sedimentation, Particle volume measurement, Particle shape and surface area, Methods for determining surface area – Absorption methods, Air permeability methods; Derived properties of powders – Porosity, Packing arrangements, Densities, bulkiness, Flow properties.

UNIT – V: RHEOLOGY AND POLYMERS
Rheology of Pharmaceutical Fluids: Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Systems;
Newtonian systems – Laws of flow, Kinematic viscosity, Effect of temperature.
Non newtonian systems – Plastic and Pseudoplastic dilatant flow.
Thixotropy – Measurement of thixotropy, Thixotropy in formulation.
Determination of rheologic properties – choice of viscometer, Capillary, falling sphere, Cup and bob, and cone and plate viscometers. Psychorheology. Applications to pharmacy.
Polymers: Definition, Types of Polymers, Water Soluble and Water Insoluble Polymers; Polymers as Thickening Agents; Pharmaceutical Application of Polymers;
Examination: One question from each unit with internal choice.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. A.N. Martin, Arthur Cammarata and J. Swarbrick, Physical Pharmacy by 3rd ed, K.M. Varghese & Co, Bombay.
2. C.V.S. Subrahmanyam, Textbook of Physical Pharmaceutics, 2nd Edition, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 2004.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Tutorial Pharmacy by Cooper & Gunn, ed S.J. Carter, CBS Publishers, Delhi.
2. Physical Pharmaceutics by Shotton & Ridgway, Oxford University press, London.
3. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences, ed A.R. Gennaro, Mack publishing Co, PA.



FORENSIC PHARMACY
(PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE)

Subject Code : PYT 3.204 Sessional : 30
Periods/week : 04 Examination : 70
Nature of Exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs
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UNIT - I:
1. Evolution of Pharmaceutical and Drug Legislation in India.
2. The Pharmacy Act 1948.
3. Code of Pharmaceutical Ethics.
4. Consumer protection Act 1986.
5. Narcotic and Psychotropic substances Act 1985.
UNIT - II:
Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Drugs & Cosmetic Rules 1945 (also amendments).
1. Administration of the Act – The controlling and licensing regulation at state level and central level (the organisation, function and duties of state and central drug control authorities).
2. Drugs & Cosmetic Act Rules – the provisions related to
a. The manufacture of drugs (other than homeopathic) including schedule C, C(1), F, F(1) and X drugs and cosmetics.
b. The sale and distribution of drugs (other than homeopathic) including schedule C, C(1), F, F(1) and X drugs and cosmetics.

UNIT - III: Drugs & Cosmetics Act Rules :
1. (i.) The import and export of drugs & cosmetics.
(ii) Labelling and packing requirements for all categories of drugs & cosmetics.
2. (i.) List of schedules to the Drugs & Cosmetics Rules.
(ii.) Detailed study of schedule M (new), U and Y.
3. Medicinal & Toilet preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955.
UNIT - IV :
1. Drugs and magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisments) Act 1954.
2. The Industries (Development & Regulation) Act 1951 and the Amendments (features).
3. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954 (salient features)
4. The Factories Act 1948 and the Amendment (salient features.).

UNIT - V: IPR’s and Patent Laws
1. Intellectual Property Rights – a brief introduction to various IPR’s.
2. Indian Patent Act 1970 and the Amendments to the Act (upto date with reference to WTO Agreement)
a. Introduction & Objectives
b. Inventions and Not inventions according to the Act.
c. Procedure of obtaining patent for drugs and pharmaceuticals.
d. Compulsory Licensing and Exclusive Marketing Rights.
3. Drug Price Control Order (Latest).]
4. Pharmaceutical Policy 2002.
5. ISO – objectives & Guide Lines
6. ICH - objectives & Guide Lines

Examination: One question from each unit with internal choice.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Forensic Pharmacy by B.M. Mithal, Vallabh Prakashan.
2. Forensic Pharmacy by Dr. B.S. Kuchekar, A.M. Khadatare and Sachin C. Itkar, Nirali Prakashan, Pune.
3. Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 by Vijay Malik, Eastern Book Company, Lucknow.


REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Bare Acts, published by Govt. of India.
2. Patent Act 1970 with patent Rules , published by Taxman Allied services (P) Ltd., 59132, New Rohtak Road, New Delhi – 110005.
3. ISO, International Organisation for Standardisation, Switzerland, 1994.



BIOSTATISTICS
(PHARMACOSTATISTICS)

Subject code : PYT 3.205 Sessional : 30
Periods / week : 4 Examination : 70
Nature of exam: Theory Exam Duration: 3 Hrs
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UNIT – I:
Definition and determination of terms Mean, Median, Mode, relation between mean, median, and mode. Standard deviation, histogram, Coefficient of correlation, regression analysis, curve fitting, T-Test, Chi-Square Test, analysis of variance, theory of probability.

UNIT – II:
Nature and Scope of Statistical methods and their limitations, compilation, classification, tabulation and applications in pharma and life sciences; Graphical representation; Measures of Average and Dispersion Stem and Leaf Plots; Box and Whisker Plots, Co-plots; Introduction to Probability Theory and Distributions (Concepts without Derivations), Binomial, Poisson & Normal Distributions (Only definition and Problems)

UNIT – III:
Sampling Methods: Simple, Random, stratified, Systematic and Cluster Sampling Procedures; Data Collection, Data Organization and Data Representation; Bar, Pie, 2-D and 3-D Diagrams; Sampling and Non-Sampling Errors; Sampling Distributions; Principles of Scientific Experiments; Concepts of CRD, RBD and Latin Square Designs;

UNIT – IV:
Interference Concerning Means: Point Estimation – Interval estimation – Bayesians estimation – Tests of Hypothesis; Common Parametric and Non parametric tests employed in testing of significance in biological/pharmaceutical experiments and elements of ANOVA (one way and two way)

UNIT – V:
Statistical basis of biological assays: Response-Dose Metameter, Delusion Assays, direct and Indirect Assays, Standard line Interpolation assay, Parallel line Assay (4 Point and 6 Point Assays) and Slope Ratio Assay; Statistical Quality Control Charts and Application of Statistical Concepts in Pharmaceutical Sciences;
Examination: One question from each unit with internal choice.

Text and Refence Books:

1. Probability and Statistics by M.R Spiegel Schaum Series
2. Biostatistics: A Foundation for analysis in Health Sciences, by Danial W.W., John Wiley
3. Statistics for Biologists, by Campbell, R.C., Cambridge University Press
4. Practical statistics for experimental Biologists, by Wardlaw, A.C., John Wiley and Sons Inc.,




PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)

Subject Code : PYP 3.206 Sessional : 25
Periods/week : 4 Examination : 50
Nature of Exam: Practicals Exam Duration: 4 Hrs
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List of experiments

1. Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates

2. Qualitative analysis of proteins

3. Qualitative analysis of amino acids

4. Qualitative analysis of alkaloids

5. Qualitative analysis of triterpenoids & steroids.

6. Determination of acid value

7. Determination of saponification value

8. Determination of peroxide value

9. Determination of iodine value

10. Estimation of Atropine

11. Estimation of Ephedrine.


PHARMACOLOGY PRACTICALS

Subject Code : PYP.3.207 Sessional : 25
Periods / Week: 4 Examination : 50
Nature of Exam: Practicals Exam Duration: 6 Hrs

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. An introduction to different equipments used in Pharmacology laboratory
2. Effect of routes of administration on the action of drugs.
3. Dose response curves of Acetyl cholins.
4. Demonstration of different types of antagonism on isolated tissue preparations.
5. Effect of different electrolytes or drugs on isolated forg’s heart.
6. Effect of drugs on isolated frog rectus abdominus (any four drugs).
7. Bioassay of drugs by matching method
8. Bioassay of drugs by graphical (interpolation) method
9. Bioassay of drugs by three point and four point methods.
10. Effect of various drugs on isolated rabbit intestine / guinea pig ileum
11. Hypoglycemic activity of insulin in rabbit.
12. Effect of drugs on ciliary movement of frog’s esophagus
13. Local anesthetic activity on Rabbit eye / Guinea pig/ Frog’s hind limb withdrawal (Demo).
14. Anti-psychotic effect by pole climbing apparatus (Demo)
15. To study the analgesic effect of narcotic analgesic by using tail-flic/hot-plate/acetic acid induced writing method. (demo)
16. Effect of drug on blood vessels
17. Antipyretic effect in rabbits.


PHYSICAL PHARMACY PRACTICALS

Subject Code : PYP.3.208 Sessional : 25
Periods / Week: 6 Examination : 50
Nature of Exam: Practical Exam Duration: 4 Hrs

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS :
Minimum 12 experiments of the following shall be conducted
1. Determination of density of given powder sample.
2. Determination of viscosity liquid sample.
3. Determination of surface tension
4. Determination of elevation of boiling point.
5. Determination of freezing point.
6. Ternary phase diagram for a three component system comprising of alcohol water benzene.
7. Determination of critical solution temperature of phenol water system.
8. Effect of impurity on CST.
9. Determination of solubility
10. Effect of addition of salt /pH/ consolvent on the solubility
11. Preparation of pharmaceutical buffer using Handerson- Hassenbach equation.
12. Determination of buffer capacity.
13. Determination of ionisation constant.
14. Determination of distribution coefficient / partition coefficient.
15. Determination of kraft point / cloud number of surfactant.
16. Experiments based on use of polarimeter & refractometer.


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