PRELIMINARY EXERCISES AND RELIEF STUDY
Maps: Definition of a map – Types of maps – representation of scale on the map:
statement scale – graphic scale – Representative Fraction; construction of scales;
Comparative scale, time scale – diagonal scale.
Measurement of distances on maps: Instrumental method – thread method;
measurement of areas: graphical method – instrumental method. Enlargement and
reduction of maps – square method and similar triangle – combination of maps of
Definition of Map Projections- Purpose- Types: Perspective and Non Perspective
UTM coordinates (Construction not needed)
Representation of direction of maps: true north, grid magnetic north – magnetic
declination – bearings – true bearing and magnetic bearing – map setting in the field –
Representation of relief on maps: spot heights, benchmark, layer colouring,
hachures, hill shading and contours – interpolation of contours; contour exercises: section
drawing: Slopes, Hill, Mountain, Plateau, River Valley. Glacial Valley, Cirque, Pass and
Saddle, Waterfall, Cliff, Escarpment and Spur.