Digestion process in human beings


Read this resources and know that how digestion process is carried out in human beings from mouth to anus.

What happens when food enters our body?

Food passes through our Alimentary canal or gut which is a long tube extending from mouth to anus. The lining of the gut is soft so that the passage of food becomes smooth.

1. The food is first crushed by our teeth to make it of same small size and texture. Food is wetted in our mouth with the help of saliva, released by salivary glands having enzyme salivary amylase which can convert starch into sugar.

Food is moved around the mouth with the help of tongue.

2.The food then passes through Oesophagus, by the Peristaltic Movements(Rhythmic contraction of muscles in the lining of gut to push the food forward in a regulated manner)

3. Next the food enters our stomach (a large organ, which when expands food enters into it), where it is received by gastric juices secreted by the gastric glands present in walls of the stomach. They are:-
Hydrochloric Acid :- creates an acidic medium which facilitates action of Pepsin.
Pepsin :- a protein digesting enzyme
Mucus :- protects inner lining of the stomach from action of acid under normal conditions.

4. Food then exits from stomach into small intestine. The movement is regulated by sphincter muscles which allow passage of food slowly in small amounts.

5. Small Intestine may be of varios types:-
In herbivores, it is generally longer as the food take longer time to digest where as in Carnivores, its just vice versa.
In small intestine, complete digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats take place.
It receives the secretions form Pancreas which contain pancreatic juices and enzymes, further containing Trypsin(a protein digesting enzyme) and Lipase(fat digesting enzyme). Bile juices secreted from liver make the food alkaline fpr pancreatic enzymes to act.
Intestinal juices are also secreted here which convert proteins into amino acids, carbohydrates into glucose and fats into fatty acids.
Villi,present in small intestine increase the surface area for absorbtion. They are richly supplied with blood vessels to take the food to cells.

6. Unabsorbed food enters into large intesttine where villi absorb water from this and the rest is removed through anus.


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