Soil Erosion can be defined as removal of top layer by natural agents like sun, wind, water and by man is called as Soil erosion. Soil erosion due to wind, water etc is called natural or geographical erosion. While the erosion caused by human activities such as deforestation,cultivating lands, road construction and building dams, etc. is called as artificial or accelerated soil erosion.There are numerous ways by which the fertile top layer of soil is eroded and wasted ,such as:
(i) Erosion is caused by rain and stormy winds, which carries away the unprotactive layer of soil. Acid rains due to air pollution increased the threat.
(ii) Deforestation caused by man for biuldings roads,agriculture and for living loosen up the soil,which can be eroded easily.
(iii) Farmers loosen the top soil for preparing seed beds and then leave it for a long time. This top soil is subjected to erosion caused by wind.
(iv) Over population of cattle eats large amount of vegetarian and expose the top soil to erosion.
Effects of Soil Erosion:
Due to loss of top soil follwing effects will take place:
(i) The top soil is the fertile soil. Nature takes about 100-400 years to build one centimeter of this soil, which getting destroyed very rapidly by human activities.
(ii) Top layer of soil contains most of the organic matter and nutrients. Loss of this soil reducing soil fertility and affecting its structure badly.
(iii) Soil erosion decreases the moisture supply by soil to the plants for their growth. It also affects the activity of soil micro-organisms. Thus deteriorating the crop yeild.
(iv) Soil erosion by wind cause sandy storms, which damage the crops. Further these sandy storms reduces the rainfall in particular area.
(v) Soil eroded by water get deposited on river beds, thus increasing their level and causing floods. These flood have various devasting effects, such as killing human and animals and damaging various buildings.
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