Fundus fluorescein angiography- FFA-a test to study retinal disease.
Dr Sachine (Eye Retina Surgeon)
This resource gives information about "Fundus fluorescein angiography" a test to study retinal disease.
Its a specialized investigation to study retinal & Choroidal circulation. Fluorescein dye is injected in vein. This dye reaches retina & serial retinal photos are taken.
When Fundus fluorescein angiography is done
1. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy & diabetic macular edema ,
2. Central retinal vein occlusion,
3. Ocular ischemic syndrome.
4. Branch retinal vein occlusion
5. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO)
6. Central serous retinopathy
7. Optic disc edema- Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis
8. Choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) in Age related macular degeneration, angioid streak, high myopia, juxtafoveal telengiectasia etc
9. Cystoid macular edema which occurs in diabetes & after cataract surgery ( Irvine-Gass syndrome)
10. Active Choroiditis
11. Acute multifocal placoid pigmentary epitheliopathy(APMPPE)
12. Retinal vasculitis
13. Eale's disease
14. Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO)
15. Parafoveal (juxtafoveal) telengiectasia
What findings one will see in FFA
In proliferative diabetic retinopathy, Fundus fluorescein angiography will show new vessels & extensive ischemia of retina. New vessels will show leak of dye.
In central retinal vein occlusion & ocular ischemic syndrome fundus fluorescein angiography will extensive ischemia of retina & may show new vessels.
Central serous retinopathy
Wet age ralated macular degeneration & Choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVs)
In optic neuritis, vision suddenly drops. Fundus fluorescein angiography will show late staining of optic disc.
Risks involved in FFA
Most of the times, procedure is uneventful.
1. Nausea and vomiting may occur. This is seen in approximately 10% cases.
2. Rarely anaphylaxis leading to rash, bronchospasm, etc may occur
3. Very rarely cardiac and respiratory arrest may occur. This is seen in approximately <0.01% (less than 1 in 10000 cases).
FFA needs a specialized fundus camera ( digital) which is costly. So investigation is also costly. Test takes 8-10 minutes. Its an OPD procedure
Avoid FFA in cases with severe kidney disease as dye is excreted by the kidneys. Its better avoid FFA in cases with allergy to dye. A sensitivity test is done to check allergy to dye before full dose of dye is injected in vein.
For patients having cardiac, respiratory disease, test can be done under anaesthetist doctor's supervision.
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