Microprocessor and Its Features

My this article contains information about microprocessor. Microprocessor is the controlling unit or CPU of a micro-computer.

Microprocessor is the controlling unit or CPU of a micro-computer, fabricated on a very small chip capable or performing ALU operations and communicating with the external word connected to it. It forma a micro-computer when combined with memory and Input/output devices. In simple words, it is a digital chip, which is able to receive information in digital form, process this information according to the programmed stored in memory by the user and large quantities. LSI technology made possible the fabrication of central processing unit or even an entire computer on a single integrated circuit.
Microprocessors of different word size with varying decrease of capabilities are available. Microprocessor comprises of all the functional components of the central processing unit of a general purpose computer. In other words , functionally it is equivalent to a CPU. However, physically, there is an additional; distinction. A microprocessor with all the functional elements, ALU, registers and the control unit , is fabricated on a single chip. The important features of microprocessor are as follows :
Cost : The most important characteristics of a microcomputer is its low cost. It is a well established fact that with the advancement of technology, the cost does not increase proportionately with the complexity. Rather, the cost per function goes on decreasing with the increasing complexity of a chip. With a high volume of production , the cost per unit microprocessor chip. Because of the widespread use of microprocessors, the volume of production is very high. That is why, microprocessor chips are available at fairly low prices.
Size : The second important features of a microprocessor is its small size. As a result of improvement in fabrication technology, VLSI, electronic circuitry has become so dense that a minute silicon chip can contain hundred and thousands of transistors constituting the microprocessor. Its size does not exceed a few inches on any side , even in the packaged form.
Power Consumption : The another important characteristics is its low power consumption microprocessors are normally manufactured by Metal-Oxide semiconductor technology, which has the feature of low power consumption. The word micro can be attributed to its low cost, small size and low power consumption. Its processing capability is quite high currently available 32 bit microprocessors have a processing power similar to that of the mainframe computer of a few years ago. Even the early 8 bit microprocessors are powerful enough to perform several applications.
Versatility : The versatility of a microprocessor results from its stored program mode of operation. Keeping the same basic hardware , a microprocessor-based system can be configured for a number of applications simplify altering the software program. This also makes it very flexible. After a system has been produced a. it is often necessary to change it either top remove huges or to in corporate new capabilities, A hard wired system, will require complete redesigning witch is bot time consuming and costly. In the case of a microprocessor-based system, however, the programmable feature can be advantageously used in most of the situation to incorporate necessary changes with a minimum no modification in hardware.
Reliability: Another important property of VLSI devices which has also been in herniated by microprocessors is extreme reliability . It has been established that the failure rate of an IC is fairly uniform at the package level, regardless of its complexity.

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