|Author: robyazhakathu 12 Jun 2010||Member Level: Silver Points : 2|
|Haemoglobin (hb)level during pregnancy as well during lactating time is very essential that is the reason why iron and folic acid & supplements are added in last months of pregnancy particularly with the aim of preventing anemia in child & the nursing mother.Maintaining a normal hb level is very adequate for the normal development of child as hb is the carrier of oxygen and healthy brain needs significant amount oxygen for its normal function and development also to prevent asphyxia during birth .|
|Author: gnanadeepan 12 Jun 2010||Member Level: Silver Points : 2|
|Hemoglobin is a molecule comprised of four subunits. Each subunit contains an iron containing pigment (heme) and a protein (globulin). There are two types of subunits, alpha and beta. Each gram of hemoglobin can carry 1.34 ml of oxygen. The oxygen carrying ability of blood is directly proportional to its hemoglobin concentration. The numbers of red blood cells does not indicate blood's oxygen content because some cells may contain more hemoglobin than others. Hemoglobin determination is used to screen for anemia, to identify the severity of anemia, and to assist in evaluating the patient's response to anemia therapy. Hemoglobin also serves as an important pH buffer in the extracellular fluid.|
* Normal hemoglobin values are:
* Adult: (males): 13.5 - 17 g/dl
* (Females): 12 - 15 g/dl
* Pregnancy: 11 - 12 g/dl
* Newborn: 14-24 g/dl 77% of this value is fetal hemoglobin, which drops to approximately 23% of the total at 4 months of age
* Children: 11-16 g/dl
Hemoglobin: critical low and high values
* A hemoglobin value under 5 g/dl may cause heart failure
* A hemoglobin value over 20 g/dl may cause clogging of capillaries due to hemoconcentration
Increased levels of hemoglobin are found in any condition in which the number of circulating red blood cells rises above normal. Examples of conditions associated with increases in hemoglobin are polycythemia vera , severe burns, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and congestive heart failure.
Glucose irreversibly attaches to hemoblobin and other proteins that it contacts. Measurement of hemoglobin A-1C or glycosylated hemoglobin is used to monitor and evaluate diabetes. The amount of hemoglobin A-1C reflects an average blood glucose over a 3 month period, compared to a fasting blood glucose that reflects blood glucose during a one-time fasting state. Adult non-diabetics have a hemoglobin A-1C value between 2% and 5%. Diabetics with effective disease control have hemoglobin A-1C values between 2.5% and 6%. Diabetics with poor disease
control may have values of 8% and higher.