Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel (or Froebel) was a German pedagogue. He was a student of Pestalozzi.Frobel developed the concept of the "kindergarten".He also coined the word which is now used in German and English language.
LIFE SKETCH OF FROBEL
Frobel was born in 1782.He was a german. As Frobel lost his mother as a infant of nine months his father remarried when he was four. The early childhood of Frobel was quite unhappy because of the indifferent attitude of his father and the step motherly affection.
He became an apprentice to forester at the age of 14.It gave Frobel an opportunity to have direct contact with Nature. He joined the University of Jena at the age of seventeen. His relationship with Dr Gruner, who influenced him very much and persuaded him to become a teacher in his school run on Pestalozzian lines.
He studied closely the system and found some defects in it. He worked in military and as a curator in Berlin Museum for sometime.
He established a school at Griesheim in 1816. It was later transferred to Keithaw. There he developed his method of education. Frobel founded his first kindergarten at Blackenburg in 1857. His method of education was prohibited by the German government. Frobel was so much pained at this that he breathed his last in 1853.
WORKS OF FROBEL
Froebel is author of many books. The folowing works are mentioned because they are mainly devoted to education.
2)Education of Development
3)The Education of Man
5)Pedagogies of Kindergarten
PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS OF FROBEL
Froebel was a spiritual idealist. For him all things of the world have originated from God. Hence, all the objects , though appear different, are essentially the same. This law of Unity is operating in the whole Universe.
The second characteristic of his philosophy is the Law of Development.
According to him this Law of Development is applicable of both, the spiritual as well as the physical world in the same way.
FROEBEL'S EDUCATIONAL PRINCIPALS
1. The Aim of Education:Enable the child to realise the unity principles.
2. The Method of Education:Self- activity method of education
3. The Method of Play:The play forms for impairing education to children
4. Principle of Freedom: Free infettered natural development of children.
5. Principle of Social Atmosphere:Should be developed through self-activity in a social atmosphere.
6. Purpose of Education:unfold the innate powers of children to order to them to attain spiritual union with God.
CURRICULUM ACCORDING TO FROEBEL
Should give importance to Religious instruction, Nature study, Arithmetic, Language, arts, Handicrafts
METHOD OF TEACHING ACCORDING TO FROEBEL
1. Principles of Self- Activity
2. Principle of hearing by Play
3. Principle of Sociability
4. Principle of Freedom
He condemned the repressionistic concept of discipline held the views that by his own free and natural activities the child learns self- discipline.
THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KINDERGARTEN
(a)The kindergarten is like a miniature, society, where the children discover their individualities in relation to others. The social aspect of development is given due emphasis in these schools.
(b)There will be an atmosphere of freedom and lot of scope for self- expression in the form of songs, movements and construction.
MERITS OF FROEBEL'S KINDERGARTEN
1. Froebel laid emphasis on pre-school or necessary education.
2. Froebel stressed the necessity of the study of child's nature, his instincts and impulses.
PERMANENT CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION
1. Inner self- activity directs the development.
2. early education should be organises around play.
Froebel was the first educational evolutionist. Education to him was the process by which the race and the individual evolves to higher and higher levels.