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Types of adjustment in Psychology
This article deals with the importance of adjustment and different types of adjustments in psychology.
What do you mean by Adjustment?
The term adjustment refers to the extent to which an individual's personality functions effectively in the world of people.It refers to the harmonious relationship between the person and the environment.In other words, it is the relationship that comes among the organisms, the environment and the personality.A well adjusted personality is well prepared to play the roles which are expected of the status assigned to him with in given environment. His needs will be satisfied in accordance with the social needs.Psychologists have interpreted adjustment from two important points of view.
•Adjustment as an Achievement.
•Adjustment as a process.
ADJUSTMENT AS AN ACHIEVEMENT
Adjustment as an achievement means how effectively an individual could perform his duties in different circumstances. Business, military education and other social activities need efficient and well adjusted men for the progress and wellbeing of the nation.If we interpret adjustment as achievement then we will have to set the criteria to judge the quality of adjustment.
ADJUSTMENT AS PROCESS
Adjustment as a process is of major importance for psychologists, teachers and parents. To analyze the process we should study the development of an individual longitudinally from his birth onwards.The child, at the time of his birth is absolutely dependent on others for the satisfaction of his needs, but gradually with age he learns to control his needs. His adjustment largely depends on his interaction with the external environment in which he lives. When the child is born, the world for him is a big buzzing, blooming confusion. He cannot differentiate among the various objects of his environment but as he matures he comes to learn to articulate the details of his environment through the process of sensation, perception, and conception.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM
Adjustment mechanism is almost used by all people. They are ideas which are inferred from the behavior of the individuals. All mechanisms are used to protect or enhance the persons self esteemed against dangers. They increase satisfaction and help in the process of adjustment if used with in limit.
The danger is always with in the person. He fears his own motives. The fear and danger are manifested in adjustment mechanism.The overall effect of adjustment mechanism is to cripple the individual's functioning and development through falsifying some aspects of his impulses so that he is deprived of accurate self knowledge as a basis for action.
CONCEPT OF ADJUSTMENT
Adjustment is the relationship which comes to be established between the individual and the environment. Every individual plays certain position in his social relations. He is trained to play his role in such a way that his maximum needs will be fulfilled. So, he should play his role properly and get maximum satisfaction. If he does not play his role according to standards and training Home Environment received his needs may not be fulfilled and he may get frustrated.
TYPES OF ADJUSTMENT
When a relationship between an individual and his environment is according to established norms then that relationship is considered as normal adjustment. A child who obey his parents, who is not unduly stubborn; who studies regularly and has neat habit is considered adjusted.
Abnormal Adjustment means problem behavior or popular speaking maladjustment. Maladjustment takes place when the relationship between an individual and his environment is not according to established standards or norms. A delinquent child adjusts with his environment but he is a maladjusted child because he is violating certain moral codes.
An adjustment mechanism may be defined as "any habitual method of overcoming blocks, reaching goals, satisfying motives, relieving frustrations and maintains equilibrium".Adjustment mechanism is a device by which an individual reduces his tensions or anxiety in order to adjust himself properly with the environment. It helps him to regain his mental health.To solve his problems or to meet conflicting situations a child's uses certain self adjustive, self defensive approaches which may protect him from his frustactive situations. These are called defense mechanism.For e.g. A child is trained to sleep through out the night without asking for milk. A child who plays his role successfully gets love and emotional security from his mother and he adjusts well to his home environment.On the other hand, if the child does not sleep properly and carries on his infantile role, he may get scolding and spanking from his mother. He may not be looked after properly and his mother's attitude may become indifferent and formal about him. Naturally the child may feel frustration.For e.g. Once the child learns that while he is sleeping, his mother does not remain with him, his first reaction may be of frustration, then he may accommodate and later on, he may assimilate in the situation so completely that he may accept it ads life and he may not mind his mothers going out of his room while he is awake.The conscious and the rational method are known as direct method and unconscious method is known as indirect method.
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|Author: Sangeeta 22 Sep 2012||Member Level: Silver Points : 0|
I found your article very helpful as I am making my assignment on adjustment. Thanks for the valuable information.