Hydro Power Plant in India : Importance, Technology and Economical consideration

This article is about evolution and possible thrust areas for the developement of hydropower plant in India. It describe types of hydropower plant, technology involved and economical consideration of these kind of plants.

Water is the most important source to produce electricity without any fuel cost. Power plant utilize water to produce electricity are termed as HydroPower Plant.
In current article I'll discuss some salient features of hydropower plant.

Sources of Water for Hydropower plant

For any power plant fuel is the most important consideration. In case of hydro power plant water is used as fuel, in technical language, potential energy of water is the real fuel for hydropower plant.
In India water is easily available in Rivers, Canals and is also stored when there is low demand by pumps.

Classification of Hydropower Plant

There are two ways of classification of hydropower plant.

Classification Based on The Rating of The Plant

This is the main consideration while assigning a category to a power plant. The rating of the plant will work as the name of the plant specially in case of hydropower plant. Based on rating plants are classified as :
  • Micro Hydro Power Plant If the rating of the plant or we can say the output of the plant is less then 100 kW or 0.1 MW, the plant is called Micro Hydro Power Plant.
  • Mini Hydro Power Plant If the rating of the plant or we can say the output of the plant is more then 100 kW or 0.1 MW and is less then 1 MW, the plant is called Mini Hydro Power Plant.
  • Small Hydro Power Plant If the rating of the plant or we can say the output of the plant is less then 10 MW, the plant will come under the Category of Small Hydro Power Plant.
    According to the new classification of CEA, India small hydro power plant may have rating upto 25 MW.

Classification Based on The Technology Used

Based on the technology involved specially during the construction of dam and height of the dam and demand the hydro power plants are again classified into three categories. These are :

  • Impoundment Hydro Power Plant It is the most common type of hydro power plant based on technological classification. A dam is constructed and water is stored behind dam and the stored potential energy of water behind dam is used as fuel for hydro power plant.
  • Diversion Hydro Power Plant In case the water head is small and the potential energy of water is not enough to drive a turbine then a separate water flow is taken from river with high speed so that it may produce enough current in the generator.
  • Pumped Hydro Power Plant Sometimes when the demand of power supply is not high then produced electricity is used to drive a motor and water is pumped back to the dam and the potential energy of this water is used to generate the electricity at the plant.


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