Food:-The substance which gives us energy by taking it and helps in growth,repair and reproduction is called food.It has following component
- Carbohydrates:-Carbohydrates are organic compound which conatain carbon,hydrogen and oxygen.These are energy giving food.Various source of Carbohydrates are:-fruits,maize,wheat,potato,rice,sugar etc.
Carbohydrates are classified in to three types:-
- Monosaccharides:-These are simplest carbphydrates which can not be broken down in to smaller units.These are mostly sweets in taste for example:-
glucose,fructose,galactose,rifose,deoxyrifose,erythrose etc.Glucose and fructose are very common monosaccharides.Glucose is a readymade food which is given to patient.It is also called as blood sugar.Fructose is mostly found in fruits sugar.
- Oligosaccharides:-These carbohydrates are formed by the combination of (2-9) monosaccharides units.When 2 monosaccharides unit combines together they are called disaccharides.The common disaccharides are
- Lactose(milk sugar)
- Maltose(malt sugar)
- Sucrose(cane sugar)
- Polysaccharides:-These are complex carbohydrates which are formed by the combination of many monosaccharides unit.Foe example-starch,cellulose.Cellulose is a type of carbohydrate which can not be digested by man.So,it is taken in the form of roughage with food for proper digestion and avoid constibution.
- Protein:-Proteins are complex organic copound which contain nitrogen.Protein are the polymers which are made up of amino acid or we can say that amino acids are the building blocks of protein.All the enzymes are protein in nature but all the protein are not enzymes.Proteins are also called as body building food.The important source of protein are-pulses,milk,eggs,fish,meat,milk products,ground nuts,cashewnuts,beans etc.Caesin is a milk protein.
Various function of protein in our body are:-
- Proteins are enzymatics in action and help in digestion of food.Example are-pepsin,trypsin,amylase,ptylin etc.
- Some protein act as hormone in our body.For example-insulin regulates the blood sugar level.
- Haemoglobin is also a protein presence in R.B.C. of blood.Helps in transportation of oxygen.
- Some proteins are contratile in nature and helps in movement of our body and its parts.For example-actin and myosin.
- Some proteins are called as structural protein beacause they helps in the formation of various parts in our body.For example collagen.
- Some proteins act as antibodies in our body and help in fighting against various diseases.For example-gamma globulins.
- Fats:-Fats are called as energy giving food.These provides more than double energy than carbohydrates.Fats are made up of fatty acid and glycerol.Depending up on the propery of fatty acid present in fats these are of two types-
- Saturated fats:-These are also called as animal fats.The fatty acid present in these fats contain carbon-carbon single bond.These fats are solid at room temperature.The cholestrol level in these
fats is higher as compare to unsaturated fats.Example of saturated fats are-butter and ghee.
- Unsaturated fats:-These are also called a plant fats.The fatty acid present in these fats contain carbon-carbon double bond or tripple bond at one or more places.These are liquid at room temperature.Cholestrol level is low.Example of unsaturated fats are-vegetable oil.
Importance of fat in our body:-
- It gives us energy.
- It is reserve food material.
- It is compnent of sex hormone in our body.
- It is present in the form of insulating coat in adipose tissue.
- It is present around certain delecate organs in the form of shock adsorbing layer eg.-eye ball,kidney.gonads.
- Fats help in absorption of fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K.
- Fat is important for healthy skin.
- Fats make food more palatable.
- Vitamins:-Vitamins are complex organic compound which are require very small amount of our body.The term vitamin is given by Casimir Funk in 1911.Vitamins are classified in to two groups-
- Fat soluble vitamins(A,D,E,K)
- Water soluble vitamin(B & c)
NOTE:-Vitamins does not provides us any type of energy.But these are necessary for certain chemical reaction occuring in our body.
The various source and function of vitamins are as follow:-
- Vitamin A:-The chemical name of vitamin A is Retinol or beta-carotene.It is a fat soluble vitamin.The various source of vitamin A are-carrot,yellow fruits like papaya,banana,mango etc.,milk,liver,eggs etc.Deficiency of vitamin A is causes a diseas called as night blindness.
The importance of vitamin A in our body:-It is the part of rhodopsin.Which is visual pigment helps on sight at night.Vitamin A is also necessary for healthy skin,hairs and proper growth.
- Vitamin B:-It is also called as vitamin B-Complex beacause it is not a single vitamin but consisted of many vitamins like-
- Vitamin B1:-Its chemical name is thiamine.Its main source are yeast,rice,wheat,ground nuts,beans,meat,milk,green vegetables etc.The deficiency of vitamin B1 causes a diseas called as beri-beri.The symptom of beri beri are swelling of limbs,fever,headach etc.
- Vitamin B2:-Its chemical name is riboflavin.Its deficiency causes a diseas called riboflavinosis.The symptom of this disease are-soreness of mouth and cracks appear at the corner of mouth.Various sources of vitamin B2 are-milk,pulses,green leafy vegetables,eggs,meat etc.
- Vitamin B5:-Its chemical name is Pento-trenic acid.It is necessary for health skin,sound mental health and good digestive tract.The various sources are-meat,fish,whole grains,tomato,groundnuts,green vegetables etc.
- Vitamin B9:-Its chemical name is folic acid.It is necessary for the formation of maturation of RBC.Its various sources are-green leafy vegetables,cauliflower,liver,kidney,banana etc.
- Vitamin B12:-Its chemical name is Cyanocobalamin.Its deficiency causes perniceous anemia i.e. it is important for the formation of RBC.its various sources are-fish,meat,milk,cheese etc.
- Vitamin C:-Its chemical name is ascorbic acid.It is soluble in water various sources of vitamin c are-amla,lemon,orange,tomato,greesn leafy vegetables etc.The deficiency of vitamin C causes a disease calles scurvy.Symptom of scurvy are-bleeding of gums and loosening of teeth.
- Vitamin D:-Its chemical name is calciferol.It is a fat soluble vitamin.The important point about vitamin D is that it can be automatically synthesized by our body in the presence of sunlight.However the various sources of vitamin D are-egg yolk,butter,liver,fish etc.In the deficiency of vitamin D causes a diseas called rechets.The symptoms of rechets are bowed legs and arms.Vitamin D is very important for our bone.
- Vitamin E:-The chemical name of vitamin E is Tocopherol.It is a fat soluble vitamin.Vitamin E acts as anti-oxidant and protects lipids and cell membranes agains oxygen demage.Vitamin E is necessary for normal skin,reproduction,functionary of muscles and protection of liver.Various sources of vitamin E are-green leafy vegetable,whole grains,vegetable oil.liver etc.
- Vitamin K:-Its chemical name is phylloquinone.It is necessary for blood cloating and prevent haemorrhage.Vitamin K is present in green leafy begetables,liver,tomatoes etc.
- Minerals:-Minerals are salts of metals and non-metals obtain from solid crust.There are about twenty one minerals which are important for normal health.Minerals are the essential part of our body which helps in proper growth,functioning and reproduction.Minerals are classified in to two groups depending upon their requirement to our body-
- Macronutrients or major minerals:-These are needed in large amount for eg. Ca,PK,S,Na,Cl,Mg.
- Micro nutrients or minor minerals:-These are required to very small amount eg.-Fe,I,Zn,Mn,Cu,Co,F,Mo,Se etc.
Importance of minerals in our body:-
- Importance of iron and its sources:-Iron is important compnent of haemoglobin in RBC.Haemoglobin is important pigment helps in transpotation of oxygen.Iron deficiency causes anaemia.The various sources of iron in our diet are-green leafy vegetables,liver,kidney,molasses,groundnut,eggs etc.
- Importance of iodine and its sources:-Iodine is main component of thyroxine.Thyroxine is a hormone of thyroid gland.It helps in control of metabolism and physical and mental growth.Iodine is taken in the form of potassium iodate.Its deficiency causes goitre.Its various sources are :-fishes,see food etc.
- Importance of calcium and its sources:-calcium is the main component of our bones and teeths.It also helps in muscle contraction.The various sources of calcium in our body are-milk and milk products,green leafy vegetables,whole grains,ceral,fish,meat,eggs etc.
- Importance of Phosphorus and its sources:-It is also main component of our bones and teeths,It is also required for the formation of DNA,RNA and coenzymes.Major source of phosphorus in our body are-Milk,green,leafy vegetable,cereals,eggs,fish,meat etc.
- Importance of potassium and its sources:-Potassium is very important for muscles contraction and nerve conduction.Its main sources are-banana,dates,potatoes etc.
- Importance of fluorine and its sources:Flourine maintain the enamels and dental caries.Deficiency of fluorine causes dental decay but its access amount is also dangerous because it causes a disease called flurosis.The various sources are-milk,fishes and drinking water.
- Imortance of sodium and chlorine and its sources:-Sodium play a important role in nerve conduction.It is a important component of bile(juice of lever).Chlorine is important for the formation of HCl of gastric juice in the form of NaCl it also maintain the asmotic pressure of the body.Main source of sodium and chlorine is common salt.
- Roughage:-The undigestable fibrous material present in our diet is called roughage for eg.-cellulose in fruits and vegetables and connective tissue in meat and fish.Roughage neither provides us energy nor builds our body.But it is important for normal functioning of digestive sydtem.The main compnent of roughage i.e. cellulose can not be digested by our body.So. it remains undigested and have good water holding capacity.The main sources of roughage in our diet are-cabbage,dalia,bhutta etc.
- Water:-Human body is made up of near about 65 to 70 % of water .Water plays a very important role in our body.These are:-
- Water regulates the temperature of our body by sweating.
- Water helps in excretion.
- Water helps in absorption of food nutrients.
- Water is universal solvent in which various salt can be disolved easily.
- water helps in transportation of food and waste materials.
- Water lubricates the body tissues.And helps in exchange of gases