IntroductionNuclear energy is considered as most powerful energy source in which a small amount of radioactive substance produce lot of energy, which is being used by various nations. Nuclear technology is present technology which can satisfy our energy needs in present and near future.
Nuclear power plants of IndiaThere are six power plants in India. In those power plants, there are 20 nuclear reactors which produce 4,780MW electricity. These are operated by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), government owned corporation.
The nuclear power plants are:
Tarapur nuclear power plantIt is situated at Tarapur in Maharashtra. The construction of Tarapur plant was started in 1962. The plant is operational from 1969. Tarapur is the largest nuclear power producer in India.
Nuclear reactors in TarapurThere are four nuclear power reactors in Tarapur nuclear power plant. They are called TAPS-1, 2, 3 and 4. The first two reactors were boiling water reactors built by Bechtel and GE companies in 1963. TAPS-1 and 2 are of 160MW each. TAPS-3 and 4 were built by L and T and Gammon India. These were pressurised heavy water reactors. They are of 540MW each. They had come into operation in 2006 and 2005 respectively. Tarapur plant has capacity of 1400MW.
Rawatbhata nuclear power plantIt is located in Rawatbhata, Rajasthan. This project was started in 1968 with the help of Canada and became operational in 1973. Rawatbhata nuclear power plant has most number of nuclear reactors than any other plant in India.
Nuclear reactors in RawatbhataThere are six nuclear reactors in Rawatbhata. They are called RAPS-1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. These are pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs).
RAPS-1: This is started with assistance of Canada. CANDU type of reactor with 220MW is constructed and its operation was stated in 1973. But, as time went on, it began to produce 100MW only due to repairs.
RAPS-2: As India conducted nuclear weapon operations in 1974 in Pokharan, Canada withdrew its support. This made late for bringing the nuclear reactor into operation. In 1981, it was brought into commercial operation. At starting, it was of 220 MW and now it could only provide 200MW energy.
RAPS-3: It is 220MW pressurized heavy water reactor. It became commercially operational in 2000.
RAPS-4: It is 220MW pressurized heavy water reactor. It became commercially operational in December 2000.
RAPS-5 and RAPS-6: They are also 220MW pressurized heavy water reactors. They became commercially operational in 2010.
There are plans for constructions of RAPS-7 and 8.
Kalpakkam nuclear power plantThis is also called Madras atomic power station. This is first fully indigenous built nuclear power plant. This includes facilities like energy production, fuel reprocessing and waste treatment.
Nuclear reactors in KalpakkamThere are two nuclear reactors in Kalpakkam. They are called MAPS-1 and 2. They produce the energy equivalent to 220MW each. These reactors are also pressurized heavy water reactors. These reactors energy production got delayed due to heavy water scarcity. They began to fully operate in 1984 and 1986.
Narora nuclear power plant This nuclear plant is located at Narora in Uttar Pradesh and situated on the bank of river Ganges.
Nuclear reactors in NaroraPressurized heavy water reactors were installed with 220MW capacity. They started operating commercially from 1991 and 1992.
Kakrapar nuclear power plantIt is near to the city of Surat in the state of Gujarat. The construction was begun in 1984.
Nuclear reactors in Kakrapar plantThere are two nuclear reactors in this plant. They are called KAPS-1 and 2.
KAPS-1: It was praised by CANDU owners group as world's best pressurized heavy water reactor of its class. It is 220MW reactor. It got criticality in 1992 and started commercial production of electricity in 1993.
KAPS-2: It got criticality and started production in 1995.
Kaiga nuclear power plantKaiga plant is located at Kaiga in Karnataka. It is near to Kali River. The National Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) operates this plant. The construction of this plant was started in 1989. This has started its operations from March 2000. It is third largest nuclear energy producer in India.
Nuclear reactors in KaigaIt has four nuclear reactors. They are 220MW capacity pressurized heavy water reactors. These are called KGS-1, 2, 3, and 4.
KGS-4: It was operational in 2010 and connected to southern grid in 2011. It is using indigenous uranium and supplying power to Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
The nuclear power plants under construction in India