Research - Meaning, characteristics and types

Research makes attempt to answer certain questions which have not answered till date. It generally explores the answer to those problems for which the answer can be given on the basis of available data. Thus research is a process to arrive at dependable solutions of the problems through a well planned method, means scientific method. This method of research is continuously advancing knowledge for promoting progress of the nation in all spheres of life.

The term research has two words Re+Search. Re maeans again and Search means to find out something new. Infact research is a process which unrevelling the facts undelying a phenomenon. Thus it is a simple process to look at phenomenon again and again from different dimensions. Research is oriented towards the discovery of relationship that existsamong different phenomena of the world. Research is based on fundamental assumption that invariant relationships exist between certain antecedents and certain consequents sothat under a specific set of conditions , certain consequents can be expected to follow the introduction of given antecedent.
Research is a point of view, an attitude of inquiry or a frame fo mind. It asks questions which have hitherto not been asked, and it seeks to answer them by following a fairly fefinite procedure. It is not a mere theorising, but rather an attempt to elicit facts and to face them once they have been assembled.
The research has mainly four objectives, which are
Theoretical objectives, Factual objectives, Establishment of truth as objective and Practical objectives.

Characteristics Of Research
- Gathers new knowledge
- Emphasizes on discovery of new principles
- Employs reliable data gathering devices
- Research must be logical
- Objectivity
- Hypothesis oriented
- Organises data in quantitative form
- Patient and persistent activty
- Leasds to careful generalisations and conclusions

Types Of Research
Research can be classified into two broad categories:
1- From the point of view of contribution
(i)Fundamental researcch
a) Experimental research
b) Historical research
c) Philosophical research
(ii) Action research
(iii) Applied research
2- From the point of view of research
(i) Longitudinal approach
(ii) Cross-section approach

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