The wildlife comprises all living organism (plants, animals, microorganisms) in their natural habitats which are neither cultivated or domesticated nor tamed. But in its strictest sense, it includes uncultivated mammals, reptiles, birds and fishes etc. Certain importance of wildlife as below:
1. Ecological Balance: Wildlife maintains balance of nature through-
(a) Regulation of population of different species.
(b) Food-chains or passage of food and energy through series of populations comprising producers,consumers and micro-organisms.
(c) Natural cycles or circulation of inorganic nutrients between biotic and abiotic environments.
2. Gene Bank: The Wildlife serves as a gene banks for breeding improved varieties in agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery. Plant and animal breeders have been able to produce high-yielding and disease-and-stress resistant varieties which form the backbone of modern agriculture. Hence, gene bank maintenance is essential.
3. Plant Propagation: Pollination in certain plants is performed by wild animals like birds; insects etc. and thus help in plants propagation, which is very essential.
4. Cleaning of Environment: Scavengers and decomposers wild animals (like vultures, eagles, jackals, hyaenas etc.) as well as micro-organisms, which feed upon dead animals, convert them into different nutrients and release energy back to the nature increasing fertility of the soil. They do very important work of cleaning the environment; otherwise what the fate of this planet will be, can be assumed.
5. Scientific Importance: For research purposes and studies of anatomy, physiology, ecology, evolutionary aspects.
6. Soil Erosion: It is prevented by plant cover, litter, mixing of litter by movement of wild animals and conversion to spongy humus by micro-organisms.
7. Control of Pollution
8. Perennial Fresh Water
9. Maintenance of Climate
10. Experimental Animals - Monkeys, Rabbits, Guinea-pigs, Rats etc.
11. Economic Importance: Timber, firewood, paper, gum, resins, tannins, several drugs, essential oils, spices, silk, honey, hair, feathers, guano (the dung of sea-fishes used as manure or the manure made from fish), leather, musk, ivory etc. are obtained from wildlife. Besides these, benefits are also obtained from: Tourists, Exports, Hide, ivory etc. after death of wild animals; though now-a days it is legally banned and not in practices.
12. Potential uses: Just as all present day cultivated/domesticated plants and animals are derived from wildlife; new foods, beverages (A beverage is a type of plant product used by everyone daily which contains an alkaloid called caffeine having the stimulative action in the human body e.g. tea, coffee, cocoa etc. It is also fragmented product of the plant), drugs and other useful products may be obtained in future from wildlife.
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