Psycho somatic disorder
These disorders are so named because they are caused both due to physiological and psychological causes whenever an individual is subjected to an emotional excitement, he experiences many changes for example blood pressure increases breathing rate goes up pulse rate increases etc. But in many persons the tension and anxiety may be persistant and these people are more prone to develop psychosomatic systems. These may assume different forms like cardio vascular reactions, respitory reactions or gastro intestinal reactions.
1. Cardio vascular reactions
This category includes many cases of hyper tension (high B.P) migraine (head ache). The causes of hyper tension may be physical for example kidney disorders of they may be emotional or unknown when the origin is emotional the reaction is termed "essential of hyper tension".
Migraine is caused by the contraction of sympathetic nerves followed by dilation of blood vessels in the brain. The pain usually occurs on one side of the head. But in some cases the pain occurs on both sides or shifts from side to side. The particular type of pain varies from patient to patient. It may be dull, throbing, hammering pressing etc. The patient experiences nausea (vomiting sensation) as well as pain. The attack ready last more than 24 hours and is often much briefer. Many professional towards compulsive fussiness, anxious conformity. It has been estimated that in 50 to 80% of cases, migraine appears in successive generations. Most often mother and daughter and almost as often mother and son.
2. Respiratory reaction
In psycho somatic cases of asthma the muscles in the walls of the bronchi ( tubes in the lungs) contract because of relative under activity of the sympathetic system. As a result the patient cannot get enough air and he pants wheezer and experiences a feeling of suffocation. Some patients have asthalic attacks only when they are emotionally upset.
Many observers have noted a high frequency of depression and anxiety in astmatic patients and also a particular family constellation. A number of psycho analists believes that asthma is linked to a frustrated need for maternal affection and a fear of losing her. From this point of view the wheezing and panting of asthmatic patients have been interpreted symbolically as suppressed cry for the mother.
3. Gastro intestinal reaction ; Peptic ulcer :
An ulcer is a creater like area of destroyed tissue or any of the external or internal surface of the body. A peptic ulcer is an area distruction in the mucous membrane that lines the stomach. Peptic ulcer is caused by over production of hydrochloric acid and peptic ulcer is an enzyme which digest food. An ulcer patient begins to feel uncomfortable about two hours after eating because the acid continues to be secreted when the stomach is empty just as it does when the stomach contains food. The patient reports a burning sensation in the upper abdomen. If he has a snack the pain usually ceases (stops). In many patients the pain is worse at night several hours after the last meal of the day.
Peptic ulcers have been repeated with huge frequency in persons who have the conflict between the infatile need for affection and care on the one hand and the adult ego's need for accomplishment and independence on the other. Such and individual may suffer from peptic ulcer.
These are the most well known disorders. The term insanity is frequently used to mean psychosis. These disorders are divided into two groups namely functional and organic. Functions psychotic disorders are those which are caused by psychological reasons. The organic disorders are those which are caused by disturbances in the structure and functions of the body.
Perhaps the worst and the least understood of mental illnesses schizophrenia named thus by "Bleuler" in 1911. Among functional psychosis it is most outstanding, nearly 80% of patients in any mental hospital suffer from it. According to Dr. Bagadia its incidence in India is as high as (one) 1% of the population.
Schizophrenia is accompanied by the following characteristics. Disintegration of personality, psychological disharmony, emotional impovishment, impavement of thought process, delusions and hallucinations. The patients do not have social feelings they are with drawn and live in their own world of thoughts. Some times they are highly aggressive and may go to the extent of causing harm to others. Delusions are the false beliefs which are illogical. The patients firmly believe that someone reads their thoughts and controls the movements of the limbs, telepathic waves. Hallucinations are of various types the patient may see certain figures. He may also complain that he is hearing the threatening voices. Many patients are incommunicative their speech is incoherent repetative and disconnected. Writing of a schizophrenia is ver clumsy repetative and uneven. He aslo suffers from impavement of thought processes.
There are 4 types in schizophrenia, they are simple, hebeprenis, catatonic, paranoid.
This disease is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. But inheritance cannot be the entire cause of the disorder. Many psychologists stress the importance of family relationships. Several studies have revealed that schizophrenia involves corticle, bio chemical and endocrinological abnormalities. Dr. E.F. Torrey in his book schizophrenia and civilization, highlights research proving that people in some geographical areas are more prone to this disease. He also showed that a large number of them were born in late winter and spring. He feels that schizophrenia is a series of diseases and unhappy emotional climate also seems to play a part.
One of the treatments is shock therapy. About 50 to 60% of the patients treated with shock therapy have recovered from disorder but a substantial number of recovered patients come back to hospital for treatment. Today schizophrenia is treated by certain drugs called neuroliptics these relieve many of the symptoms.
2. Manic depression psychosis
This psychotic disorders involves two phases namely manic phase and depressive phase. Manic phase has the following symptoms alteration of moods. flight of idea psycho motor over activity. The manic phase may be hypo as hyper. In these two states, the patient is uncontrolable he may indulge in aggressive activities and too much of talking he may cause injuries to others.
Depressive phase has the following symptoms
Pervition of ideas psychomotor under activity the patient is lethargic unable to get up from his bed he may refuse to take food and sometimes he has to be tubefed.
Heredity is an important cause environmental factors also play an important role. It may be due to physical illness, financial reverses, loss of employment death in the family. It is assumed that glandular disturbance is one of the important causes.
This is another form of psychosis which is marked by well systematized and stable delusions of persecution and grandeur. Apart from the delusions patients are sensible and coherent in their thinking and behaviour. Majority of them are self supporting and have bright intelligence.
Paranoia does not develop suddenly it is a morbid condition of personality which was present in a mild form when the patient entered the hospital. The patient is suspecious irritable and extremely sensitive. He has no sense of humour, he is pessimistic. He is interested in his own welfare and has no socialties.
There is no treatment for paranoia. The patient does not co-operate with people in hospital as far as the treatment is concerned.