Evolution of Telecom in India
1851 : INDIAN TELEPHONE NETWORKS set up.
1943 : Telecom Sector Nationalized. Department of Post & Telegraphs and the Ministry of Communication administered the Telecom and Postal Services till 1985.
1985 : Department of Telecommunications (DoT) created.
1986 : Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. (MTNL) and Tata Communication Limited (Formerly known as Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (VSNL) established.
1993 : Paging industry.
1995 : Private Operator license for cellular services.
1996 : Private Operator license for basic services.
2000 : Department of Telecom Services (DTS) corporatized to form Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL).
Regulatory set up – TRAI
TRAI : Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, to set Tariff, fix terms & conditions for operating telecom services and for interconnecting with other operators; Govt. to seek TRAI's recommendation before issuing a license.
TDSAT: Telecom Dispute Settlement & Appellate Tribunal will hear and be the authority where operations will appeal in case of differences between –
- Licenser and licensee
- Two or more service providers
- A service provider and a group of consumers.
FDMA : Frequency Division Multiple Access. It is single user friendly such as Pager, Walky-talky etc.
TDMA : Time Division Multiple Access. Example:- GSM: Global System for Mobile (or) Global Synchronization Module; ex: Hutch, Idea, BSNL, Spice, Airtel, Aircel etc.
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access. Ex: Tata Indicom, Virgin Mobile, Reliance etc.
The 6 c's of CDMA:-
Parts of Main Switching Center MSC:-
CSA : Customer Service Area
PSTN : Public Switching Telephony Node -> MSC for wire line
MDF : Main Distribution Frame -> BSC for wire line
DP : Distribution Point -> BTS for wire line
ODP : Outside Distribution Point
IDP : Internal Distribution Point
PDP : Pole Distribution Point
PCF : Packet Control Function -> for data purpose
PDSN : Packet Data Service Node -> for data purpose
AAA : Authorized Authentication Account -> for data purpose
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software.
HNIU: High Network Interface Unit.
1. TTL Notifications
2. Create Service Request
3. View Service Request
4. Contact Center
Contact Center: To see details about customer information you have to enter Del no. or Account no. Then you can see the Dashboard.
Del details new -> double click -> A drill-down list will be appeared. Again double click -> Products for DEL.
Service Request:- All technical complains will be treated as 198 type trouble ticket.
Features Present in Wire line:-
* Speaker phone
* Call Hunting
* Voice Portal
SLIM (Subscriber Line & Instrument Measurement):-
It gives the following parameters:
* Foreign Voltages
* Distance at which there is a cut in the line
SLIM is a tool used to check the health of the copper loop starting from MDF to the customer's premises.
Status Test is used to check, if the phone is dead or not; if yes then what is the reason for it.
National Leased Line:- The clients who've several offices across India, they are using national leased lines to secure data from other web-portals. It is safety dedicated line which support speed of 64 KBPS to 2 MBPS.
International Private Leased Lines which connects from one country to another country with very high speed network.
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Node):- Data Transfer of rate 64 KBPS, for sending voice, video & data over a digital telephone line or normal telephone wires. It is 2 types:-
1. Basic Rate Interface (BRI) -> Two 64 KBPS B-Channels & One D-Channel for transmitting control information.
2. Primary Rate Interface (PRI) -> 23 B-Channels & One D-Channel. At a time only 15 channels can be used. This is for International Private Leased Lines.
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