Evolution of Telecom in India
1851 : INDIAN TELEPHONE NETWORKS set up.
1943 : Telecom Sector Nationalized. Department of Post & Telegraphs and the Ministry of Communication administered the Telecom and Postal Services till 1985.
1985 : Department of Telecommunications (DoT) created.
1986 : Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. (MTNL) and Tata Communication Limited (Formerly known as Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (VSNL) established.
1993 : Paging industry.
1995 : Private Operator license for cellular services.
1996 : Private Operator license for basic services.
2000 : Department of Telecom Services (DTS) corporatized to form Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL).
Regulatory set up – TRAI
TRAI : Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, to set Tariff, fix terms & conditions for operating telecom services and for interconnecting with other operators; Govt. to seek TRAI's recommendation before issuing a license.
TDSAT: Telecom Dispute Settlement & Appellate Tribunal will hear and be the authority where operations will appeal in case of differences between –
- Licenser and licensee
- Two or more service providers
- A service provider and a group of consumers.
FDMA : Frequency Division Multiple Access. It is single user friendly such as Pager, Walky-talky etc.
TDMA : Time Division Multiple Access. Example:- GSM: Global System for Mobile (or) Global Synchronization Module; ex: Hutch, Idea, BSNL, Spice, Airtel, Aircel etc.
CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access. Ex: Tata Indicom, Virgin Mobile, Reliance etc.
The 6 c's of CDMA:-
Parts of Main Switching Center MSC:-
CSA : Customer Service Area
PSTN : Public Switching Telephony Node -> MSC for wire line
MDF : Main Distribution Frame -> BSC for wire line
DP : Distribution Point -> BTS for wire line
ODP : Outside Distribution Point
IDP : Internal Distribution Point
PDP : Pole Distribution Point
PCF : Packet Control Function -> for data purpose
PDSN : Packet Data Service Node -> for data purpose
AAA : Authorized Authentication Account -> for data purpose
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software.
HNIU: High Network Interface Unit.
1. TTL Notifications
2. Create Service Request
3. View Service Request
4. Contact Center
Contact Center: To see details about customer information you have to enter Del no. or Account no. Then you can see the Dashboard.
Del details new -> double click -> A drill-down list will be appeared. Again double click -> Products for DEL.
Service Request:- All technical complains will be treated as 198 type trouble ticket.
Features Present in Wire line:-
* Speaker phone
* Call Hunting
* Voice Portal
SLIM (Subscriber Line & Instrument Measurement):-
It gives the following parameters:
* Foreign Voltages
* Distance at which there is a cut in the line
SLIM is a tool used to check the health of the copper loop starting from MDF to the customer's premises.
Status Test is used to check, if the phone is dead or not; if yes then what is the reason for it.
National Leased Line:- The clients who've several offices across India, they are using national leased lines to secure data from other web-portals. It is safety dedicated line which support speed of 64 KBPS to 2 MBPS.
International Private Leased Lines which connects from one country to another country with very high speed network.
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Node):- Data Transfer of rate 64 KBPS, for sending voice, video & data over a digital telephone line or normal telephone wires. It is 2 types:-
1. Basic Rate Interface (BRI) -> Two 64 KBPS B-Channels & One D-Channel for transmitting control information.
2. Primary Rate Interface (PRI) -> 23 B-Channels & One D-Channel. At a time only 15 channels can be used. This is for International Private Leased Lines.
Having more than 12 years experience in content writing and member of ISC since 2011, Naresh Kumar is an MBA Graduate with hobbies like reading, travelling, photography, singing, writing stories and poems etc.
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