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Air pollution and its effects
In this resource, I am explaining about air pollution and its causes. The effects of breathing impure oil, sources of air pollution, health effects of air pollution, disinfection of air etc also explained in this resource.
The earth is surrounded by air which is mans immediate environment. It is necessary for all forms of life due to its oxygen content. Air cools the body and it is necessary for us smell and hearing .But through air dust, smoke, poisonous gases and disease producing organisms can enter into the human body. The weight of the air pressing down all around us produces air pressure. Air moves across the surface of the earth in the form of wind. The sun causes the wind because it heats the earth's surface unevenly. Air resists the motion of objects travelling through it and this force is called air resistance. The air contains oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases like neon krypton, helium, ozone etc in traces and in addition water vapour, dust, organic matters etc.
Effects of breathing impure air
1) Acute effects are - headache, giddiness, nausea, vomiting and collapse.
2) Chronic effects are – loss of memory, anaemia, digestive troubles, lowered vitality and susceptibility to tuberculosis, pneumonia, etc. The man is not able to work properly and his output of work falls down.
Air pollution is defined as the atmospheric air having one or more ingredients in such quantities and of such duration that they are or may tend to be injurious to human, plants and animal life. These objectionable ingredients' are called as air pollutants. These air pollutants are CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and radioactive substances.
Source of air pollution It means industries, instruments and various operations which are creating pollutants in large quantities during their process . They are,
1) Industries – chemical , oil refineries ,fertiliser factories
2) Combustion – Industries which are using coal, oil as fuel for combustion required during their operations.
3) Motor vehicles –All petrol and diesel engines emitting a lot of pollutants through their exhaust during working of engines. If these engines are very old or not well maintained or badly adjusted they produce the pollutants more than the permissible limit, causing air pollution.
4) Others – Incineration of refuse, nuclear power stations, agricultural – crop spraying, pest control etc.
Health effects of air pollution
1) Effects on human – In immediate effects there is increase of morbidity and mortality ( death rate and birth rate), irritation to eyes, asthama,etc
2) Delayed effects – chronic bronchitis, asthma, primary lung cancer, poor visibility leads to accidents, unpleasant odour leads to nausea, vomiting.
3) Effects on plants and animals - Plants are very sensitive to SO2. Fluorine compound, smog etc spotting and burning of leaves, destruction of crops, retarded growth of plants, cattle suffer from cachexia by eating such leaves and plants.
4) Social and economic aspects
Acid- rain and fog causes corrosion of several building materials, hydrogen sulphide causes discolouration of lead fitting
Fluorine causes etching of glass. Tar and soot adhere on which they impinge; ozone causes damage to rubber goods.
Corrosion of metal, cost of cleaning building materials, repairs to them, research in this field, and expenses for adoption of control measures is also to be taken into consideration.
Disinfection of air
It is not possible in whole environment but is particularly useful in enclosed areas
Mechanical ventilation reduces contaminated air and bacterial density
Ultra – violet radiation- used in operation theatres, dialysis centre, infectious diseases hospitals.
Chemical mist - Triathlon glycol is very effective .Formaln+ Kmno4 are used in disinfecting enclosed rooms.
Dust control - This can be achieved by using wet mopping of floor oil, impregnation on floor and blankets, air- conditioners etc.
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|Author: Ramachandran Pattabiraman 02 Sep 2011||Member Level: Gold Points : 1|
|Good posting! Though there are rulings by government etc., to prevent the air pollution,the major part is in the hands of public to follow up/implement the rulings. Simply speaking the smoking cigarettes in public place itself a creation of air pollution. It should be cared only by the public.|