Child labor: cause and effect

In this article I will discuss about the rising problem of child labor.What is child labor? What are the reason behind child labor? What are the program started to help them? How a labor can be considered as a child labor? Criteria of child labor? Provisions for child labor.

You all are aware with the word 'child labor'. Do you know what is the actual meaning of child labor?

What is child labor

The terminology 'child labor' is used to define the employment of children below a certain age, which law and custom consider as an offense or illegal. This age is decided by law. The word 'work' means full time commercial work to sustain self or add to the family income. This is a big threat to child's mental, physical, social, educational, emotional, and spiritual development. Broadly any child who is employed in activities to feed him self or his family members is subjected to consider as child labor.

How to determine the child labor

Child labor is a child with smaller age then the age decided by law of that country and working in any form. This stipulated age varies from country to country and government to government. It is obligatory for all country to set a minimum age of child labor which should not less than 15. Mostly developing country has decided this age to be 14. Child below this age and working in any form in any place can be consider as child labor.

What is not child labor

Only working of child is not a child labor. According to the rule of ILO written in convention 138 certain country gas flexibility in this rule. Setting the minimum age 12 and 13 of their children -but only the partaking in light work. Light work means those economic activity which do not damage their health and development or interfere in study. A child working part time(3-4 hours) to learn and earn for self and parents after school is not child labor.

Act and plan for the child labor

Indian government has made a child labor act 'The child labor(prohibition and regulation) rules,1986. Government has also started many helpful program for them.

  • In 1987, a National policy on child labor was started. This policy seeks to gradual rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations.
  • In 1988, a National child labor project was started in top 9 district of high child labor endemicity. In this project an amount of 100 rupees per month was given to child labors. The number of district was increased to 100 in 1988.

Constitutional provision

Our constitution has also given some place for child labor act. These are
1)Article 21-A (right to education)
--The state provide free and compulsory education to all the children of the age of 6-14 years in such manner as the state, by law, may determine.

2)Article 24 (Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
--No child below the age 14 years shall be employed in work any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

3)Article 39 (The state shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing:)
--That the health of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to there age or strength.

Legislative provision

1)A child is that who has not completed age of 14.

2)Child are restricted to do work in 13 occupation and 57 process.

3)If anyone found guilty he will be punished with fine not less then 10000 which may exceed to 20000 rupees and imprisonment of not less than 3 months which may exceed to 1 year or both.

Cause of child labor

There are a lot of cause for the child labor. Most of these are the main problem of a developing country.

  • Poverty

  • Unemployment

  • Excess of population

  • Parental illiteracy

  • Social apathy

  • Ignorance

  • Lack of education and exposure

  • Exploitation of cheap and unorganized labor

  • Inculcating of parental skills

  • Non availability and accessibility to good education

  • Less practical knowledge

Poverty is main cause of child labor. There are many children in a single family among poor people which lead them to more poverty and finally result in sending their children to work. Many children come s from harassment of parents, step parents or other relatives.
Adult employment and urbanization is also considered as a big reason of child labor. These uneducated adults find it difficult to get jobs because the factory owner find it beneficially to hire child labor on cheap rates than those of adults.
The industrial revolution also had a negative effect by giving rise to such circumstances, which leads to child labor. They pay less and force them to do more work and for the more time. This also cause adult unemployment.
A bonded labor is also a problem in villages. In this, son or daughter has to pay or has to work for the payment of loan that his parents took.

Effects of child labor

  • Child labor creates and perpetuates poverty

  • He suffers physical, mental and social torture

  • He deprives of his childhood

  • He becomes mentally and emotionally mature which is dangerous for him.

  • It condemns the life of a child to unskilled and badly paid works

  • Ultimately this leads to child labor of many generations of poor family.

Child labor is a game with the childhood of many children. Many small girl are made to indulge in prostitution. They deprives of their right and anyone can exploit them.
You can easily find news of child labor in newspapers.

Types of child labor

  • Bonded labor

  • Agriculture labor

  • Cultivators

  • Mining, Quarring

  • Household industry

  • Trade and commerce

  • Manufacture

Rights of children

  • Right to education

  • Right to expression

  • Right to nutrition

  • Right to information

  • Right to health and care

  • Right to protection from abuse

  • Right to protection from exploitation

  • Right to recreation

  • Right to protection from neglect

  • Right to development

  • Right to name and nationality

  • Right to survive.

Most child labored places

1)Sweat shop

2)Tea shop

3)Automobile repair shop

4)Garments shop

5)Mostly in silk industry and bangle industry

6)Vegetable and fruit sellers

Child labor in india

India is a developing country that facing child labor. This is the main hurdle in the process of development. In the last few years, such cases has low frequency than earlier. A well developed country must have strong anti child labor law which india have. Only law have no mean, it should be implemented. Everyone should be aware and should inform police if they see any child labor.

Child labor: a global issue

The child labor issue is not only in India. Whole world is suffering from it. According to a static data given by international labor organization in 2008 about 172 million children aged 5-14 partake in child labor globally out of which 126 million was in hazardous process. This data shows the condition of children. Many international organization are working to stop this child labor. The main organizations working for children are:
1)international labor organization(ILO)

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Author: Ramachandran Pattabiraman02 Sep 2011 Member Level: Diamond   Points : 1

An eleborated posting and good posting! But though many implementations and objections over the child labor, there are still children employment is found here and ther. Many automobile shops are having small boys as workers. Besides this, there are many beggers make their children to beg on the road especially on road signals. They are indirectly selling small car articles in the signals - though is admissible one way as rather begging they are doing like this, this is dangerous one and what would be their future? One time during Annadurai period in Tamilnadu, there was a scheme to eradicate beggers. Accordingly, the beggers were collected by the appointed authorities and made them to stay in a specifically builted building outside the city. But after a few months action, the buidling was emptied and used for some other purpose. The scheme went in air - beggers came to their respective places again. So firmity should be there in implementing a scheme or rulings.

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