Let us examine the issue of non violence. This issue cannot be comprehended unless we understand the freedom struggles wars that happened for and in India from all aspects.
We are defining the Indian freedom struggle as a fight with aggressor (s) whose intention is, to rob, plunder and take away resources of this country (human or natural) by either establishing a temporary, proxy, permanent or sporadic administrative centers of control within the targeted country that is India.
There are 7 freedom struggles that fit the pattern above in the context of modern India.
Battle:1.Third Panipat war,Peshwas Vs Abdali, Nature:Violent. Result: Inconclusive/No territory lost
Battle:2.India Anglo war 1,Peshwas Vs British, Nature: Violent. Result:Inconclusive/10% territory lost
Battle:3.India Anglo War 2,Peshwas Vs British, Nature: Violent Result: Inconclusive/20% territory lost
Battle:4.India- Aglo War 3,Peshwas Vs British, Nature:Violent Result: Conclusive/15% Territory Lost
Battle:5.War of independence 1, Indian's Vs British, Nature:Violent Result: Conclusive/British Occupation
Battle:6.War of independence 2,Bose INA Vs British, Nature:Violent Result: Conclusive/Burma Separation
Battle:7.War of independence 3, Gandhi Vs British, Nature:Non Violent Result:Conclusive/Partition of India
The Peshwa's contribution.
By the end of 1750 almost all of India came under the rule of Peshwas, thanks to the first Peshwa; Bajirao I, Peshwas were Prime ministers of Chatrapatis' ruled from Pune while Chatrapathi was seated in Satara fort. This strange arrangement was made to protect the King as in previous years Shivaji along with his wife were taken captive by Aurangazeb which virtually eliminated whatever Shivaji created until 1660.
Peshwas eliminated internal squabbles completely and paved way for stable administration. They defined the boundaries of Hindu-Muslim kingdoms and are the first to eliminate standing armies of local chieftains by creating a residency system whereby the Peshwa army protected all small kingdoms from external aggression. This agreement was made with Delhi Sultans too and Delhi paid close to Rs 54 lakh rupees 300 years before for Peshwas to keep them in power. So Pune and Satara became the real political and administrative capitals of undivided India. It is under this standing agreement the Peshwas moved to Panipat to protect Delhi rulers when they were threatened by the aggression of Ahamad Shah Abdali; an Afghan chieftain and ruler.
British were waiting for their opportunity during 1750 to have a foot hold in India and post Panipat war it took them another 50 years to strike at the center of Indian power Pune which they called as first Anglo Maratha War. This is belittling of the fact that English never wrote anything good about their defeats especially when they occurred with Indian or African counter parts. Almost such history is eliminated from our text books even when we became independent. So it is now given impression that after emperor Shivaji demise during 1660 till 1815, there is no history of India or even if something was it was because of Shivaji and it continued as independent- a totally mis-construed sociological impossibility.
What the battles led to.
These above classifications were done based on thorough historical research and quantitative data, as well as on the extent of Indian territory lost, human lives lost, resources plundered. Within these sub- periods there are many wars fought by Indian Kings and British between 1757 to 1857. By 1857, 51% of the Indian Territory was occupied by British, and 49% of the territory was still in the hands of Indian Kings (wrongly termed as princes because for British only their king is king and all others even though they held territories more than that of England are princes).
Also ceded to the British was the authority to import weapons by the Indian kings as British promised uninterrupted supply of heavy weapons if in case any other European nation invades them. British became sole suppliers of modern weapons needed for all Indian kings. Under their occupied territories British made sure all the metallurgical furnaces were destroyed which could be used for any weapon manufacturing. Weapon making castes/workers were summarily executed. Local territorial history culture of warfare is summarily wiped out. Orders were passed banning bearing arms (because citizens may revolt), owning horses for personal transportation (this gives mobility) under British territories. The sole weapon that could be held by any is a kitchen knife single side sharpened and blade should not be not more than 6 inches.
Under their British Occupied Territories of India (BOTI) (51% of India) British started an exhaustive comprehensive study of how to prevent anger from erupting and if erupted how to redirect or subdue the anger of their subjects from affecting British interests. The task was given to two brilliant personalities. One was a British educationist Robert Mc Caulay whose job was to recommend on methods of preventing anger by manipulating education reforms. The second personality was David Alan Hume, a senior British Intelligence Officer who was assigned the work of recommending preventing incidences such as First war of Independence in British occupied territories.
With the recommendations of McCaulay in the British occupied territories the traditional medium of instructions Sanskrit and Persian, were replaced and English medium education and associated dress were introduced. A gradual discredit of all that was Indian started in education and on the ground literally, every note worthy achievement of Indian civilization of centuries was virtually razed to dust. Slowly but steadily by 1890 a generation of Indians in British Occupied Territories of India (BOTI) started believing that whatever English is, it is synonymous with development, and English is equated to science and scientific development. It is this generation that paved the way for conquer of India under the plan created by the second personality David Alan Hume.
David Alan Hume
David Alan Hume was a veteran British Spy chief in India and studied intelligence reports of past 35 years literally 35000 documents filed by British officers all across India, Indian social settings, castes hierarchies and their abilities to fight their interrelationships. His recommendation was that there should be an Indian intermediate agency (agencies) that can claim superior to all other Indians and handle the anger of Indian masses of BOTI. He recommended these agencies be filled with absolutely loyal English educated anglophile Indians who must be monitored by seasoned British intelligence officers (both British and Indian origin specially trained for this purpose) for not wavering from their goal. Even if they waver, these embedded spies will discredit them. The sole purpose of these agencies was to divert the attention and anger of population of Occupied Territories towards diversionary divisionary fratricidal ideologies promoted by the organizations set up by the chosen men of British Intelligence.
For this a careful selection and nurturing of candidates from young age was necessary. British used the schools set up for this purpose. First they erased the memory of cultural history of the young boys. Then they indoctrinated them that British and European systems were superior. Later they were instructed to save the heathen or the poor Indians suffering from the lack of British and European mark of enlightenment.
This process culminated by 1890 in creation of three organizations and dozens of movements, Indian national congress directly under David Alan Hume, Hind Maha Sabha, Indian Muslim League. Many movements like Brahmosamaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical society etc are also offshoot of this strategy. For most of these leaders it was a time pass in spare time to discuss about the plight of fellow Indians about whom they never know and find solutions with the British leaders in summer and Christmas parties. The intellectual void this generation experienced under British education made them neither to live with their own brothers Indians whom they thought were inferior, nor let them live with British whom they held superior. This is the lost generation of India from 1890 – 1950
To know more about India's partition and the contribution of Mahatma Gandhi, please refer the following article: Why Gandhi chose the non-violent movement