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Modern teaching aids in combination with traditional aids are the tools for effective teaching
In this resource, I gave in detail the role and benefits of using teaching aids in teaching. I gave an account of various audio-visual aids used and their advantages in using them. Selecting a proper teaching aid by the teacher is very essential for the success of effective teaching. Language lab facility is a must to improve the spoken aspect of the students in English language. Finally I conclude a combination of modern teaching aids with traditional teaching aids will help in effective teaching.
What is the role of teaching aids in teaching?
Teaching aids are a boon for a teacher in making his or her task easy in making students to understand a concept. Teaching aids involve in the use of the senses of hearing and sight. Scientists through their research estimated 86% of the learning process of an individual depend on the senses of hearing and seeing. From the following example one can clearly understand the role of senses in learning process. A baby after birth at the beginning try to learn things by his or her senses. First through the sense of sight he or she is able to identify mother and other family members. Slowly the baby is able to hear sounds and learn to respond them which finally help the baby to speak small words. After that, the senses coupled with mind leading to perception of the child. Perception leads to ideas or concepts. From this example we can clearly see how the senses helped in learning the various abilities of the baby like recognizing, speaking and concept forming. Learning through senses is more permanent than mechanical learning. At the same time, one has to keep in mind that teaching aids have to be used as aids to supplement teaching but should not be used to replace the teacher itself which otherwise will have a detrimental affect on the learning process of students.
Benefits of using teaching aids
1. Using teaching aids in teaching makes his or her lesson more interesting and real. It motivate the student to imagine and think mentally. Audio-visual aids used for this purpose will make use of the senses of hearing and sight of the student. This will ensure quick and effective learning. For example, a Social teacher if he uses a Globe model in his teaching the students feel the lesson will be more real and interesting. They can learn things like shape of the earth, the various aspects of the earth like latitudes, longitudes, poles etc. more effectively.
2. It saves the time of the teacher in teaching his or her lesson as well as it makes the learning process of the student more solid and durable. A biology teacher who is teaching about the digestive system of man may do it by drawing the diagram of the same on the board. But this consume much of his time of his period for drawing the diargram with no time left for the teacher to explain. But using a chart for this purpose saves his time as well as it makes the teaching more interesting.
3. Using teaching aids in teaching will help the students to form a direct bond between the word and object what the teacher is teaching. For example, a language teacher in a primary class, if he wants to make his students to understand the difference between 'parrot green' and 'thick green' he cannot do it by using his verbal expression for any length of time. Using teaching aids makes this task easy by selecting the two different color papers or cloth pieces of the same what he is talking about.
4. Teaching aids will remove the barrier of class room walls by bringing vivid reality into the class room. For example the specimens of various animals and plants stored in sealed bottles were shown to the students for teaching a biology lesson will arouse interest and enthusiasm as well as widen the scope of their learning.
5. Using teaching aids will help slow learners or those who lack power of concentration to learn things by way of doing practically. It provides a first hand experience to see a demonstration, handle the apparatus and perform the experiments by themselves, prepare charts, models etc. This type of experience makes the learning permanent.
6. Teaching aids are needed for those things which we cannot have accessibility, very expensive or physically cannot be carried has to be shown in the form of a chart or a model replace the original thing and help the students to understand easily. For example, extraction of a metal from its ore through various steps can be explained clearly with the help of a chart.
Various teaching aids in use at present
Many teaching aids which are in use widely at present include both traditional as well as modern ones. A traditional teaching aid like black-board has the same importance at present as before. Some of the traditional teaching aids are so important that we can not replace them with any other. So one has to use modern teaching aids in combination with the traditional aids for effective teaching. The success of a teacher in teaching a topic effectively, depends upon the suitable type of teaching aid he or she select for his or her teaching according to the demand of the situation. For example in a primary class, a language teacher explaining the difference between two words like 'roar' and 'bark' he cannot do it by showing the pictures of Lion and Dog. The teacher will be successful if he or she use a tape recorder to reproduce the sounds before the students which were prerecorded. Various most important traditional teaching aids and modern teaching aids which are widely used at present were discussed in detail below.
Important traditional teaching aids which are in wide use at present
Some of the traditional teaching aids which are in use even at present include Chalk Board, Charts, Models, Specimens, Slides, Text books, Demonstrations, Flannel Graph, Bulletin Board, Radio, Tape Recorder, Flash cards, Pictures, Photographs, Globes, Graphs, Maps, Puppets, Field trips, Aquarium, Vivarium etc.
1. Chalk Board
Chalk Board is one of the most essential equipment of the class room and it is an indispensable aid for the teacher. Chalk Board is a symbol of class room and is a never failing friend of a teacher. Different types of Chalk Boards are in use from times immemorial. Black Board and White Chalk is the most commonly used equipment for a classroom. At present modern schools are arranging Green Boards and Yellow Chalks for the classrooms.
1. It helps the teacher to draw and hold the attention of the students while the teacher is explaining a concept on the board.
2. The important points or the various steps the teacher writes on the board or the various sketches the teacher draw on the board in explaining a concept will help the students to correlate in a systematic way aid in better understanding of the topic.
3. Chalk Board teaching will allow more interaction between students and teacher which will help in active as well as effective learning of the concepts by the student. Chalk Board teaching is a best teaching tool for the teacher to explain solutions for the Maths problems, chemical structures, chemical formula and chemical equations in Chemistry and Grammar in language subjects.
4. It breaks the monotony of lecture mode of teaching. Chalk Board teaching will allow the students to learn Maths, Science and English in a practical way rather than in a passive way.
5. Chalk Board teaching uses the oral and visual senses which aid in effective learning of the students.
A chart is a systematic arrangement events or facts or ideas in a graphic or pictorial form can be arranged in a way visible to the entire class. Charts and Models prepared by the active participation of teacher and students will be much more helpful for the students rather than the charts bought in the market.
1. They provide a variety teaching aid for the teacher. It simplify the explanation and narration of the teacher which otherwise make the process complex for the student to understand. Charts are helpful for summarize the narration.
2. Charts help the teacher to teach abstract ideas into concrete concepts of the topic. We can draw relationships between the facts and figures shown in the chart.
3. They help to show continuity and progress of the topic. For example a Biology teacher while teaching a topic on Human digestive system has to use the same chart for explaining the topic. Use of Chart will help to draw the attention of the students while he is explaining the structure of each part of the alimentary canal as well as the part of the digestion which occur in that particular part. Teaching without this aid will become a failure for the teacher in making the students understand what he or she is teaching.
4. Using Charts as teaching aid will help to stimulate the power of observation,judgement and thinking abilities of the students.
Some more teaching aids and their uses
Flannel Graph can be used to exhibit prepared models like a gas plant or the whole process of pollination and fertilization. Teacher and students together can prepare such models and can be arranged on wooden board with a back ground of white flannel. This type of models prepared at once can be used by the teacher for years together.
Bulletin Boards is an equipment should be placed near science room to exhibit the models, charts, projects etc. prepared by the students. This will help in motivating the creativity of the students.
Slides are used to teach structures in Biology which are too small to be seen by the naked eye like germs (bacteria, protozoa etc.), structure of a cell etc.
Specimens are one kind of teaching aids in Biology which cannot be available at everywhere and every time like Starfish, Octopus, Seahorse etc. This type of exhibition of Biological specimens arouse interest in students towards the subject.
Tape Recorder can be used as a teaching aid by primary class teachers to teach the sounds made by various birds and animals, to make the students to learn rhymes or to make the students to hear prominent speeches made by eminent political leaders of historical importance.
Flash Cards are one kind of teaching aids can be used to teach English, Maths, Science or Social Studies. They are generally used by teachers to teach lower and upper primary classes. To teach English, a flash card with a picture on one side and its name on the other side will be used. This type of flash cards will be used to identify the picture, alphabets and vocabulary in English language. In Maths to remember formulas, shapes of the objects, Maths vocabulary etc. Maths flash cards will be used. This type of Flash Cards can be made by teacher himself or will be available in the market.
Aquarium is a small pond arranged in a glass trough and is placed at a place in the school where every one can see the interdependence of plants and animals, and animals and animals in it. The live aquarium will provide an opportunity to learn things, enjoy and relax in the leisure time.
Field Trips,Educational Tours, Visiting places of Scientific interest, Excursions: Field trips will provide a scope to observe the diversity of living beings present in their natural habitats. A trip to Paper industry or Soap industry will provide a scope to know how these things are made. Excursion to historical places provide a scope to learn about the culture, type of architecture they followed, the type of facilities the people they enjoyed at that time etc.
Most popular Modern teaching aids in use at present
The most popular modern teaching aids in use at present are English language lab, Interactive electronic white screen, Computers, Overhead projectors, Power point presentations, Internet, Online dictionaries, Online Encyclopedia, E-books, VCD'S, DVD's, Televisions, Tablets, DVD players etc.
1. English language lab
At present modern schools are well equipped with the facility of good English language lab. It provides a scope for the students to improve spoken aspect of English language.
A language lab is a special room with a set of sound proof Booths where the students sit. Each Booth is connected with a master track and a student track. The master track provides the lesson and the student track record the response. Through the headphones lesson is fed to the students. There is one way glass partition between the console and student Booth. The teacher sits in the console Booth. The teacher checks the progress of the student from the console. Teacher and student can communicate with each other without disturbing other students. The language lab supplements the work of the teacher. It is an audio-lingual supplement to classwork.
1. Through imitation and manipulation process adopted in language lab help the students to improve the spoken aspect of English language.
2. This device allow individualized teaching as a student can practice at his own pace and also he or she can repeat the same many times.
3. Students can self correct and also have the chance to self examine themselves.
4. This device also help the teacher to strengthen his language skills.
2. Interactive Electronic White Screen
Present day modern schools are well equipped with Interactive electronic white screens in the classrooms. A combination of the devices like Computer, Digital overhead projector, educational software will allow us to use this Interactive Electronic Screen most effectively for classroom teaching. Companies like Educom, Smart sync. by payment from the school, arranging Interactive screens along with supportive topic contents for all classes from their servers. If these schools register with these companies they establish a knowledge bank center in the school with their companies server. They provide a support staff from the company to assist the teacher at troubleshoot times in presenting the topic to the students on an Interactive electronic white screen. The teacher in his or her leisure time can select the content needed for the topic from the knowledge bank and can store in his account and this in one way will save the time of the teacher. The teacher even can add new points while he or she teaching on the interactive screen by writing with a styler (electronic pen) which can be stored for future use of the same topic by the teacher. The teacher can stop the topic at any point on the screen and can use the same electronic screen as a chalk board.
1. There is no need for the teacher to prepare his or her teaching aids to use in the class room which reduces the burden of the teacher. The teacher has to select the content according to his need from the vast content provided from the knowledge bank.
2. This technology will help the teacher to avoid all other teaching aids which he or she using in their teaching with a single stroke.
3. The teacher can even use the same interactive electronic screen as a chalk board.
4. Exercise works provided for the topic will help in the active participation of the student in learning process.
3. Computers and Internet surfing
Computers are one more valuable teaching aids at present. Teachers are using the computers for preparing their lessons, to prepare progress sheets and to conduct online tests. To prepare educational software like Cartoons, Animations, video and audio lessons one has to depend on computers. A well equipped Computer lab is essential for any institution where computer forms one of the subject of their learning. For the students to do and practice their programmes students should be provided with computer facility. Teachers who prepared their own lessons on computers or the company prepared lessons on VCD'S or DVD's can be projected on to a overhead screen from the computer to view the entire class.
Internet facility provided is an additional support to the computers by which they provide maximum service to the field of education. At present students and teachers are dependent on Internet browsing to get maximum knowledge of a particular thing on what they are studying. They get the facility to read on line books, E-books, online dictionaries, online encyclopedia which otherwise they buy cost thousands of rupees.
4. Power point presentations
A teacher can prepare Power point presentation on any topic in the form of slides incorporating with graphics and sounds. The topic has to be designed in such a way that the slides display one by one on the screen. The teacher can explain the topic by showing slide by slide projected on the overhead screen.
One disadvantage with this teaching aid is if the presentation is not so much attractive it becomes a failure. This type of method can be advisable to use only at higher studies like Degree collages, Universities and in professional courses.
At present television also form an important educational tool for effective teaching. Various channels like National Geographical Channel, Discovery channel, Animal Planet channel, History TV etc. are educative in nature. They provide very interesting and amazing information about various beautiful creatures elsewhere present in nature to the viewers. These channels telecast their programmes 24 hours continuously and so these programmes can be shown to the children in the leisure periods of the school time by projecting on to a overhead screen. Some channels even telecasting special programmes to educate students in English Grammar, Maths, Science which benefit the students very much.
A combination of Television with VCD or DVD player will enhance the educative value of Television. Educative software like CD's and DVD's can be shown on TV screen with the help of DVD player in the Media room of the school will be helpful to improve and enhance the knowledge of the student. To provide entertainment for Nursery and Primary class students TV in combination with DVD player can be used to show animation and cartoon shows in the classroom.
Without any doubt teaching aids are very essential for effective teaching process. Teacher has to be very careful in selecting a teaching aid that demands and suits the situation of teaching. Using too many teaching aids, using a teaching aid at a wrong place may bring negative effect on teaching. Using a combination of modern and traditional teaching aids by the teachers will pave way for their effective teaching. Teachers also have to see that technology should not dominate teacher which otherwise may result in indiscipline in students, even the effectiveness of teaching may lost and the result is the student may not be guided properly by the teacher.
Read related articles: Teaching aids Effective teaching Traditional teaching methods Modern teaching methods
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|Author: Hariatte Dsouza 13 Dec 2011||Member Level: Bronze Points : 2|
|A very informative write up and I suppose every teacher should have a look at the techniques of teaching, so that the child has that keenness of studying, after all it’s the matter of his/her career. |
Some good teaching techniques are used by some of the upcoming schools in India like Ascend International primary school. I am looking forward for the other schools to use such meaningful techniques so that the education, which the child receives is practical and reflects on his/her learning process.
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