Morphology Of Root (Characteristics, Types And Functions)

Root is a very important part of plant. In this article I am providing introduction, different types of roots and functions of the roots. It would be beneficial to students. This article would be beneficial to the students of botany.

The root is an elongated, colourless, underground structure which develope from the radicle during germination.

Characteristics of Root

The main characteristics of root is as follows:-

  • Root develops from radicle during germination.
  • Root is Positively geotropic. It means it grows towards the soil.
  • Root is negatively Phototropic. It means it grows away the sun light.
  • Root cap is found in root. It is the most important characteristic of roots.
  • Unicellular root hairs are found on root.
  • Root does not bear nodes and inter nodes.
  • Root does not bear buds and leaves.

Tap root and Adventitious roots

There are two types of roots. Tap root and adventitious roots.

Tap root :- It is developed from radicle. The main root is called primary root. Its branches of first order is known as secondary root and branches of second order is known as tertiary roots. It grows deeply. It is generally found in dicot plants. For examples mustard, pea etc.

Adventitious root :- It is found in moncot plants. The primary root does not develop well and many thin roots arise which are known as adventitious roots. These types of roots are also known as fibrous roots. They can also grow from other parts of plants. e.g sugar cane, bamboo, etc.

Functions of the root

The functions of the root may be describes in two categories.

Primary functions

  • The roots fix the plant to the soil.
  • Roots absorbed water and minerals for the plant.
  • Roots trans-locate absorbed water and minerals to the base of stem.

Secondary functions
The roots are modified to perform different functions according to habitat. These functions are known as secondary or special functions:-

  • In some plant roots store food materials. e.g. carrot,radish etc
  • In some plant it helps in respiration. e.g. Rhizophora
  • Some roots helps in manufacture food by process of photosynthesis. e.g. Tinospora.
  • Some plants are Epiphytes in this type of plant roots help in clinging and absorbing water from atmosphere. Archid
  • Some roots help in reproduction. eg. Bryophyllum
  • In some parasitic plant it helps in absorbing food materials from host. eg cuscuta
  • Some roots have nodules and bacteria are found in these nodules. These bacteria help in nitrogen fixation. e.g.leguminous plants.
  • Roots of some aquatic plants help in floating and balancing. e.g. Pistia
  • Some roots help mechanical support to the plant. e.g. Banyan, Maize, Semal etc.

So in this article I have explained morphology of roots and I hope it would be beneficial to students.


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