Liver : The Largest Gland Of Human Body

Liver is the largest and most important gland of human body. Liver perform many functions. If you want to know more information like position of liver, internal structure of liver, function of liver, disease caused by liver then read this article. I have provided detail information of liver which would be helpful for the zoology students.

Location and internal structure

structure of Liver

Liver is the largest gland found in the human body. Liver is about 1.6 Kg. in an adult man. Liver is reddish brown in colour, situated in the upper part of the abdominal cavity touching the diaphragm. Liver consists of two lobes, right and left lobes. The right lobe extends over the right part of the abdomen and the left lobe situated on the left side of the right lobe. Liver is covered with peritoneal membrane which keeps liver in position. On the interior surface of the liver, two longitudinal and one transversal fissures divide the liver into four lobes right, left, quadrate and caudate. In the right longitudinal fissure, gall bladder is present. Histologically, liver is formed of many pentagonal or hexagonal lobules separated by a sheath of connective tissue fibres called Glisson's Capsule . Glisson's capsule contains numerous interlobular blood vessels and interlobular bile ducts. Each hepatic lobule has a central or intralobular vein, around which a large number of hepatic cells are arranged in single row forming radial hepatic cords. Cytoplasm of hepatic cells store glycogen granules and fat droplets. Between hepatic cells, two types of channels are present:

  1. Liver Sinusoids : Liver Sinusoids are irregular branches of interlobular vein which lie between the hepatic cords and are filled with blood. Wall of Liver Sinusoids have some amoeboid cells called Kupffer cells . Kupffer cells are phagocytic in nature and help to remove toxic material from the blood.
  2. Bile Capillaries : Bile capillaries form a network on the surface of hepatic cells. Bile capillaries join to form bile ducts which open into the hepatic duct, the hepatic ducts of the various liver lobules together form the common hepatic duct that opens into the cystic duct and deposits bile in the gall bladder.

Functions of liver

Liver is the most important organ of the body. Liver performs following functions:

  1. Secretion of bile: Liver cells secrete bile which is yellowish or reddish brown in colour and alkaline in nature. The Ph value of bile is 7- 8.5. Bile contains salts like sodium glycocholate, sodium taurocholate and sodium bicarbonate. Bile also contain pigments bilirubin and biliverdin. Bile juice helps in digestion.
  2. Metabolism of glucose: Metabolism of glucose is controlled by liver. Excess quantity of glucose in blood is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver through the process of glycogenesis . When required the stored glucose in further converted into glucose by the process of glycogenolysis .
  3. Synthesis and storage of fat: Excess quantity of glucose is converted into fates and is stored in adipose tissue by liver.
  4. Deamination of proteins: Excess quantity of amino acids undergo deamination, such amino acids in hepatic cells are converted into urea.
  5. Synthesis of albumin : Liver synthesis albumin from amino acid.
  6. helps in blood coagulation : Liver produce blood proteins like prothrombin and fibrinogen which are essential for blood coagulation.
  7. Produce Heparin: Liver produce an enzyme heparin which prevents clotting of blood in the blood vessels.
  8. Blood formation : Liver produce RBC during foetal life.
  9. Production of heat : Metabolic activities of the liver produce heat. So, the temperature of the blood leaving liver is higher than that entering in liver.
  10. Liver store some vitamin like Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, and Vitamin D.
  11. Liver store inorganic substance like copper and iron which are necessary for the metabolic process to active an enzyme.


Jaundice is a common disease of the liver due to which the skin becomes yellow. Jaundice results from the accumulation of bilirubin in the extracellular fluids, may be caused by excessive destruction of red blood corpuscles, damage the liver cells or obstruction of ducts which carry bile.

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Author: Syed Musaddiq06 Dec 2012 Member Level: Gold   Points : 3

Nice article.

Liver is the largest gland of our body with most functions. And these are not common, these are very important function as one cannot liver even for a second if in any case his/her liver is damaged. So, for me, the liver is the most important organ of the human body
So, thanks for this wonderful article and please don't stop, keep submiting articles like this to ISC and benefit us.

Author: Jagdish Patro22 Nov 2013 Member Level: Diamond   Points : 5

A person cannot survive, without a healthy liver. The liver is the largest glandular organ in human body. Keeping the body pure of toxins and harmful substances is its important function.
The two large sections of this organ are: the right and the left lobes. The gallbladder sits under the liver, along with parts of the pancreas and intestines. The liver and these organs work together to digest, absorb, and process food.
Filtration of the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body is done by liver only. It also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
Common liver diseases include hepatitis infection, fatty liver disease, cancer as well as damage from alcohol, the pain reliever acetaminophen, and some cancer drugs.
A very good attempt was made by the author by bringing the role of the liver in human body.

Author: Vinod.R02 Nov 2014 Member Level: Silver   Points : 3

I am a Science student and also like to study about human body and its functions. Liver is the largest organ in our body. Liver helps in blood coagulation and also produces RBC(Red Blood Corpuscles) during fetal life.Liver also stores some vitamins . Human Liver has two lobes , left and right.The main job of the liver is to filter the blood.

The above article is good and has detail information about liver. Thanks for the information

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