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India-USA relationship since 1990
After the end of cold war and disintegration of USSR the relationship of India and USA have been seen to improve and rely more on co-operation and mutual development. In this context this article deals with major area of co-operation and conflicts since 1990.
There is saying for international relation that international relation is influenced by permanent interests, there is no permanent friend or no permanent enemies. All relations changes with the circumstances and this same can be applied to India-US relationship. India and USA have been two largest democracies of the world. India's relation with three important neighbors(Pakistan, China and Soviet Union) and US policy towards Asia and Africa have been most determining factor of India-USA relationship. India –US relationship in the early phase started with the positive note. USA supported for India Independence and pressurized Britain. But in cold war era the relation become more strained as India supported USSR its major rival.According to B.R Nanda India –US relation has always passed through many twists and turn and there is always mutual suspicion between two countries. In later phase with the end of cold war the environment supported fresh and new relationship of India US relationship which have been freed from the global bipolarity. In the post cold war, both countries came closer to each other and committed to extend their economic co-operation to strategic relation including civil nuclear co-operation . The Indo –US civil nuclear cooperation agreement of October, 2006 and the three agreement signed in July 2009 and the continues need for the development of comprehensive cooperation against the forces of terrorism have given a new vigor to contemporary India-Us relationship. There are many ups and downs in India-US relationship.
Area of co-operation since 1990
India –USA relation constitutes some major areas of co-operation which made their relation being better in the contemporary international scenario. After end of cold war there is great improvement in the India –US relationship. Since 1990 the India –US relation seems to improve and known to set an example for co-operation concerning the bilateral relation of these two nation. Starting from co-operation of economic field to cooperation regarding health, education and environmental issues are major area that help to flourish the India –US relationship that is influenced by prevailing global and regional environment. Both are currently engaged in making their relation more comprehensive, mature and developed in all areas including social, economic and strategic. According to Hillary Clinton- India and US should expand their security relationship and increase cooperation on counter terrorism and intelligence sharing and on over all ties.Both India and America share a love for human rights, liberty, equality, justice and peace. Both are opposed to imperialism, colonialism, international terrorism and apartheid. The major area of co-operation between India and USA are as follow
With the liberalization of Indian economy the trade relation of India has increased with India. India has emerged as a lucrative market for the foreign investment. Between 1991and 2004, the annual American investment in India raised by 57.5% annually. IT includes area of power generation, telecommunication, petroleum exploration and mining. In 2005trade policy forum created jointly for promotion of bilateral trade. It is two way trade deal and flow of investment. In 2007imported goods worth Rs. 17.24 billion from US and exported goods worth Rs. 24.02billion. Both the countries signed open skies agreement in April 2005 which helped to enhance trade tourism, business due to increase number of flights. Further agricultural and food security co-operation have been expanded so as to provide food security and adequate access to quality food through L’ Aquila Food Security initiatives. The recent India –US relationship lay emphasis on bilateral co-operation in the field of intellectual property and focus on the development of human resource element, capacity building, public awareness regarding intellectual property protection and enforcement. Hence India’s economic leverage regarding the US stand is important in some respects because of the size and trajectory of the Indian economy.
The India –US defense relation depends on common belief in freedom, democracy and the rule of law and promotes security interests. The major interest included in defense ties are maintaining security and stability, avoiding violent religious extremism ,preventing the huge spread of mass destruction weapons and securing the free flow of commerce via land, air and sea lanes. In2002 India –US have joint naval army. They even conducted NSSP(Next Step in Strategic Partnership) which was signed in 2004. Further the signing of the civil nuclear deal it promoted qualitative and quantitative up gradation in the defense co-operation. In march 2009the U.S provided sole of P-8poseidon to India worth RS. 21 billion US $ which considered as largest military ties between the two countries. Besides this they strongly emphasis on military ties in each meetings. Hence India –US have sound military ties.
In march 2000, India agreed to allow close international monitoring of her nuclear weapons development while refusing to give up its current nuclear arsenal. Atomic peaceful co-operation act in 2006 was signed allowing direct nuclear commerce between countries. The legislation allow India to use it by purchase of US nuclear material and reactors.IN 2002 negotiation for deal 123 agreement conducted which allowed waiver peaceful nuclear activities in India. After NSG waiver in September, 2008 other countries like France and Russia have signed separate agreement for full nuclear co-operation with India.
After 11 september,2001 attack on US Twin tower and pentagon agitated the concern of US for terrorism. India supported US for this and this marked the starting point of co-operation between two nation against terrorism. In 2000 a joint working group was created to work against terrorism. They focus to broadened the area of scope of intelligence and investigation co-operation. Try to analyze the major crux of international and regional terrorist situation. Introduction and expansion of qualitative anti-terrorism training program, signed a mutual legal assistance treaty. Introduced a cyber security forum to crush the cyber terrorism and information security. Stress on military to-military co-operation to defeat the terrorism. They worked together regarding multilateral initiatives on terrorism working on the implementation of UNSC resolution 1373.
Bi-national full-bright-Nehru scholarship program expanded which included 45% increase in funding. The total fund contributed by both the countries accounts for more than 6.7 million $. Applied the 21st century Obama-Singh knowledge initiatives which increase funding to 10 billion$ and support university linkage and development of faculty. Focused on women social and economic empowerment and promote female literacy and health care.
Co-operation in health sector
India –US establish regular meeting concerning health and complete health dialogues since 2010. In India seventh regional global disease detection centre was established as part of global disease detection. Trough US agency for international development it laid co-operation on urban health including training and health communication.
Co-operation concerning environment
India –US co-operated on major environmental issues. They initiated “green partnership” to co-operate on clean energy, climate change and food security. Indo-US clean energy research and deployment initiative was launched. USA supported for an Indian EPA which will focus on creating more effective system of environment regulation, governance and enforcement.
Conflicting areas since1990’s
The various conflicting areas between India and US are as follows-
- Signing of non-proliferation treaty-There is conflicting matter regarding this situation. India found this policy discriminatory and avoid to sign, though in 2009 US and India signed End Use monitoring Agreement, but critics say it would led to inspection of Indian nuclear facility by US.
- AF-PAK strategy launched by US-US provide enhanced economic assistance to Pakistan. India is apprehensive that Pakistan would use US financial aid to launch terror activities against India and would get influence position in Afghanistan.
- WTO(agricultural subsidy)-both countries have different perception on agricultural subsidies. India along with ldc’s and G22 seeking substantial cut regarding farm subsidies that the developed world was giving to its farmers. Contrary to this USA along with European Union supported it.
- Climate issues-India is pressurized to reduce carbon produced but USA avoiding its binding commitment and following the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
- Kashmir issues-USA always supported Pakistan on Kashmir issue and tried to make this bilateral issue as an international issue.
Hence the Indo-US relation has to go a long way so as to prove its sustainability and credibility as far as compatibility of relation is concerned . India- USA never have been like that of Soviet Union ties which can be said to touch the zenith of idealism. But despite of all those friction India and USA unlikely to confront each other by war. After cold war era each year adds new hopes and co-operation concerning India –US relationship. The relation between two nation have largely expanded laying emphasis on each and every important global issues. Hence in the last 20 years the Indo- US relation have been developing on positive note of friendship and co-operation.
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