Plato's theory of Ideal State
Posted Date: 27-Aug-2012
In this Article. I have explained theory of Ideal State of Plato. I have mentioned basis of Plato's theory. The concept of Plato’s Ideal state was not based on purely imaginary; it was based upon Plato's experience in city states.
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Plato's Theory of Ideal is a product of his imagination. He has less used his experience and more his imaginations. Plato seeks a superman which makes his theory idealistic in nature.
His ideal theory is based upon four fundamental principles:
1. Classification of citizens in three classes.
2. Establishment of Justice.
3. Theory of education.
4. Communist social system.
Plato has putted emphasizes on man's need. According to him, everyone needs food, clothes and shelter etc. These needs can't be fulfilled alone. A man needs co-operation to fulfill these needs. To fulfill these needs they form economic association. Some choose to agriculture some to weaving and others to build house. Thus, there are different types of craftsmen in a society.
On the basis of this division of labor Plato has classified citizens of an ideal state in to three classes:
1. The Guardians
2. The Auxiliaries
3. The Farmers
According to Plato each should have appetite, wisdom and spirit. These are found in everyone but they differ in quantity from one to one. A man adopts a role in the society according to the supremacy of a quality in his soul.
Plato believes that if the individuals belonging to the three classes in a state perform their classes in a state perform their functions most efficiently and sincerely a state will evolve in which there were no class struggle and the ideal of competition will have no place. In this type of state the citizens will be non-selfish and peace will grow.
The concept of justice:
Platonic ideal state cannot be understood without understanding his concept of justice.
According to Plato justice is the basis of the state. Ideal sate is not possible without realizing justice. While justice is the life, the ideal state is the body.
According to justice Plato means that every citizen performs the function of which he is most capable of and does not hinder in other's function. Thus each class efficiently thus each class efficiently forms his role in the state. Thus, the state ultimately establishes peace and achieves justice.
Theory of Education:
Plato supports state regulated system of education. According to Plato education does not mean the storing up of external knowledge but the bringing of the soul into proper environment for the development of the state.
According to Plato a state can regulate crime by adopting a proper system of education.
Plato gives more importance to education than any other Greek thinker.
Communist social system:
Plato propounded theory of communism of wives and property. Plato suggest communism for guardian and ruling class as he thinks both the community of property and the community of families tend them to make truly ruling class.
Plato was of the opinion that the ruling elite class should not have any property of their own beyond what is absolutely necessary.
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