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The dynamics of internal and reverse migration
Much hullaballoo is recently being raised over the issue of people migrating from one Indian state to the other in search of livelihood. This article forewarns against the dangers that the reverse migration would pose to the prosperous Indian states. If migrants earn their livelihood in other states, the states are also gainers by the contributing might of the migrants. The need is both sided.
What is internal migration
The process of going from one state of the nation to another state within the nation is called internal migration. This is great catalysing force to influencing the economic and social development. Geographically, our country is divided in 28 states and 7 centrally administered regions. There are diversities galore amongst all states on account of populace. According to 2011 census data available, whereas there are states like Sikkim with a meagre population of5.4 lacs, there are states like UP having the population of 16.62 crores. The total population of migrants within the country is 30.9 crores. This means around 30 % of nation's population is migrants. 87 % of these migrants are such who went out within their states from one to the other places while 13 % of populace migrated from on states to others. As per 1991 census, the number of such migrants was 22.6 crores.
Causes of migration
There are several factors responsible for migration from one place to the other supreme amongst which rank
- Business, e
- Marriage and
- migration with family people.
Reverse migration could be fatal
There went one saying once which runs like thus:
"Le latta, chal Calcutta".
As long as this sloganeering remained in circulation, Kolkata ruled the roast in the country then at the national level. But from the day, people started leaving Kolkata; its shinning too vanished in thin air.
After the British East India Company set its foot on the soils of Calcutta till 1967, Kolkata remained country's number one metro city of nation. It was a sort of a status symbol for the companies and the industrial houses to set up offices/shops in the vicinities of Chouranghee lanes and Park Street of main Kolkata.
During the leftist movement started in 1967, when the sloganeering of 'Bihari Mahamari (epidemic)' kept echoing the streets of Kolkata, the Bihari migrants started abandoning Kolkata out of concerns for security. The chimneys of jute mills began getting cold and closed shops. The tea gardens appeared to be looking barren. Business houses shifted locations from Kolkata to Mumbai, Ahmadabad and Delhi. Their attachment of affinity also vanished after sometimes with the addresses of Park Street and Chouranghee lanes.
Same history repeating on changed locations
Some political leaders are repeating the same Kolkata history in Mumbai also only at its own peril. This fire of hatred spread outside Mumbai spitting venom in Kalyan, Nasik, and Pune. After the spread of excessive violence in Nasik, the northern Indian migrants in large scale left city and returned back to their original home state. People fled from Pune and Mumbai too. This has resulted into up to a 40 % of reduction in the labour force in industrial units around Nasik. In 1980, the strike carried out under the leadership of Dutta Samant had taken much of the sheen out of the muscles of Mumbai. It's today being given off the ugliest form by the anti north hatred campaigns cudgels raised up by short vision politicians without a mass appeal. This has given way to big industrial houses reallocating their locations in areas of the neighbouring state of Gujarat.
Plight of Gujarat vis–a-vis the migrants
Located at a distance of 4 hours journey from Gujarat, Surat is one world's biggest commercial centre of diamond cutting and sculpting and polishing business. Over half of the migrant work force working here hail from UP and Bihar. Since last several years, over 60 % of the labourers going back to their mother land on the Deepawali Eve do never return back to work again in Surat. Among the labourers not returning back, some have opened up their own shops while some feel satisfied with the MANREGA types of projects and programmes. Surat is feeling the crunch of labour shortage and diamond merchants are searching for newer places to set up shops. In Punjab, the land owners are in a quandary due the labour migration and offering attractive packages like cycles and mobiles to lure them back.
Right to livelihood- fundamental right to human
Our country has the oldest tradition of leaving behind the dear and loved ones behind in search of livelihood to far off places from the place of origins. There is an age old custom of mobility migrating to places, travelling and mutual coordination mixed up with nation integration in our country. Even then we behave with the migrants as if they have come from a baser planet and are inferior to the natives. It’s true when a person makes the flight from his native place to eek out livelihood; he finds the culture and place to a strange and different than his own place and his own culture. And the people of the place where he has come over do think also his culture to be different than theirs. But this separatist thought mustn’t be treated to be proper in the modern society in the best of the interests of our motherland.
India –a case of unity in diversity
Many nations of world have made efforts on international level to inculcate national integration, between people of diverse creed, caste, class and language groups. European Union is one instance in point. With the sole purpose of attaining economic and political unity of Europe, the European Union has been formed. At present 27 European Countries are its members. The union is being run through independent agencies and inter governmental decisions. By putting a sound system of rules in place, the union has developed a unitary market system. Passport system has been abolished for free movements of people between the member states. The chief aim of all these policies is a free flow of people, goods and services and capital amongst all the member state. The free flow of the people amongst the member nations means that the citizens of this union can settle very easily after their retirement in any member country after the completion of education, job and retirement. Such a system has been established that the citizens have to face the minimal of administrative formalities. Professional qualifications have been accorded recognition throughout the member nations.
Free flow of capital between the member countries means to facilitate smooth purchase and sell off of wealth, shares, and properties to create an atmosphere of investments. The free flow of services means the citizens of the member state can give off services on temporary and permanent basis of staying over.
Wrap up: Migrants are not supplementary but necessary for the prosperity of a state. If the outsiders in a state gain employment, the state too is gainer with their mighty labour and skills. All these hullaballoo is for the sake of vote bank at the cost of interests of the state.
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