According to Erich Weber parenting styles are relatively uniformly meaningful educational opportunities pronounced behavior that can be characterized by typical complexes of educational practices. For the creation of parenting styles can be prepared by Domke. He identified three main condition fields:
Socio-cultural conditions such as different social background, education, and labor's living conditions, norms and values, socio-political and economic conditions bring out different parenting behavior. Parenting styles that prevail in simple cultures or in different social classes and the anti-authoritarian education are examples of styles this condition field.
Personality specific conditions in the form of individually distinct personality traits influence behavior in general, and of course the educational behavior in particular. The autocratic and also the so-called permissive ie certain indifference. parenting style are examples of a typical personality traits influenced mainly by style expression.
Method-specific conditions, not in isolation, but relatively independent of the conditions mentioned, and methodological reflection can significantly affect the behavior and education work stylistic influence. The same extent as is the case style is based on method creates the sense of unity method for a particular parenting style. This is largely for the parenting style described as "socially inclusive" or "emancipatory" in which the improvement of relations and possibilities of self-determination is at the heart of educational efforts.
Educational goals and parenting
The term parenting style is perceived as a term for a set of variables with which the social interaction and cognitive processes that are discoverable among educators and educated, can be described with sufficient accuracy and reconstructed.
The separation of features on the behavior and experience level, the differentiation of cognitive components in descriptive and normative elements, the consideration of all involved in the interaction partners and the emphasis on meta-level allows the design of a wide-ranging system of education style variables.
A distinction between the self-image of each interaction partner, the foreign image of the other and purpose means ideas. They refer from the perspective of parents to judgments about the functional relationship of educational goals and parenting practices. In extension to all involved in a situation of interaction partners can additionally assume that children possess such instrumental beliefs to achieve their goals and desires of the parents.
The means-end scheme is a thought pattern that is used everywhere, where people plan, act and try to understand the actions of others. It is like any other schema objects and complicated interrelationships greatly simplified form in the center of the Practice of Education was always the question of what means are appropriate to achieve specific purposes. The educator uses means to achieve certain purposes.
self-reported parental behavior
This latter distinction directly about the need to distinguish between descriptive and normative statements about various issues, for example in the form of real and ideal images of themselves, of the other interaction partners of its relationship to the other, etc. in the style of education research. Such normative orientations are of course not only to be found with regard to desired child behavior but also affect the educator himself.
Important special cases are the children affected by parental rearing behavior and people who work professionally with parent child relationships, such as relevant working psychologists.
With consistent consideration of the interaction character of the parent-child relationship is precisely to distinguish each interaction partner between the attitudes and perceptions. So it makes a difference whether children their parents' behavior towards them play or whether parents describe their own behavior which is called self-reported parental behavior. Just can distinguish between settings, goals and target media relations, the parents themselves report and the perception of these features with the children which is called perceived maternal education settings. The term itself parenting style and features you can play these differences accurately. The same extent Must this distinction to the style of education in the relevant research in children and cognitive components of the exercise of these are used by the parents.
If you follow the options on, which are given to the consideration of multiple interaction partners and their cognitions, we come to distinguish between a direct perception level to a level of perception that first perception and a second etc.
Parenting style typology
In the parenting style typology of Baumrind there is the distinction between an authoritative, an authoritarian and permissive parenting style.
In the authoritative education exists between parents and children open communication: All are allowed to express their own opinions and listen to the others. The parents behave responsive to their children, so go a sensitively to their children. They support the independence and individuality of their children and consider both the rights of children as well as their own. When decisions they ask the children for their opinion. At the same time the parents expect their children that they are behave mature according to age, and ensure consistent compliance with these requirements and other rules. These standards of conduct are explained to the child and justified. If necessary, also commands and sanctions are applied, often stronger, than would have been necessary to obtain the consent of the child.
In the authoritarian education parents restrict their children's freedom of expression. They are not very responsive, so go a little sensitive to their children, and act contrary to the individuality and independence of their children. There are more limited, more rules and restrictions for the children, as would be necessary for an orderly coexistence. Compliance with these rules is often harsh penalties including corporal punishment, little effected by positive reinforcement.
Permissive parenting has got some with the authoritative style in common: Even compliant parents behave towards their children responsive, support their independence and individuality and ask their opinion on decisions. However, they communicate little behavioral expectations for the child. Neither do they expect mature behavior according to age nor to comply with reasonable rules of coexistence. That the children meet these few behavior expectations / rules is not enforced consistently. It can be concluded beyond dispute that resilient parents their own needs and rights are often subordinated to those of their children.
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