Scientific explanation for Biological phenomena-Part-1

In living organisms so many natural happenings or phenomena occur. When we observe these phenomena we will try to analyze it and try to find a scientific reason for these happenings. In this article I provided some scientific explanations for some biological phenomena. These explanations will be helpful for to those students who are appearing for their course exams of schools & colleges and various competitive examinations in Biology subjects.

Usually we observe so many interesting things or facts among the living organisms which are living around us. When we observe such phenomena we question ourselves why and how these things happen. By various means we try to find a scientific reason behind these natural phenomena. In this article I am giving some biological phenomena in the form of a statement and a proper scientific explanation after it.

Biological statement 1:- On a hot summer midday the leaves of a herbaceous plant wilt but by evening they recover


On a normal conditions, all the cells of the plant are in turgid condition i.e. the cells are with maximum amount of water present in them. This condition keeps the parts of the plant in stiff and rigid condition. But on a hot summer midday the rate of transpiration in an herbaceous plant exceeds the rate of absorption of water from the soil. This makes the cells of the plant to loose more water and thus the cells become flaccid. When the cells of leaves become flaccid (less water in the cells) makes them to loose stiffness and rigidity and thus wilt (leaves get folded). In this folded condition of the leaves, rate of transpiration get checked as the stomata of the leaves get closed as they were not exposed to direct sunlight. But by evening the rate of transpiration decreases as the intensity of sunlight decreases and the cells of the leaves are able to retain their turgidity.

Biological statement 2:- Arteries of human body are deep seated while veins are superficial


Arteries are one kind of blood vessels which are highly muscular in nature when compared to veins. They usually carry oxygenated blood away from heart to all parts of the body at high pressure. The muscular nature, narrow lumen, the pressure acquired from the heart in the flow of blood are the causative factors for high pressure flow of blood in arteries. But veins are the blood vessels which carry De-oxygenated blood from all parts of the body towards heart at low pressure. Thin layer of muscle tissue, wide lumen, blood flowing against gravity are some of the reasons for low pressure flow blood in veins. Most of the veins in our body are present in between the muscles and also superficially because to provide some external force to the veins to push the blood towards the heart otherwise which move very passively due to lack of pressure in veins. While we are doing our daily activities, the muscles present in our hands and legs exert some pressure on the superficially present veins which aid to provide some external pressure to push the blood along in veins. If arteries are present superficially, in addition to the pressure applied by muscular walls of our arteries some external force also will added to them by our body muscles which may lead to bursting of these blood vessels. So the arteries are deep seated while veins are superficial in our body.

Biological statement 3:- Urine passed in summer is slightly thicker and less in quantity while slightly thinner and more in quantity in winter.


Kidney's are osmo-regulatory organs i.e maintaining correct amount water and ionic balance in our body. During summer season our body tends to loose water by way of sweating or through perspiration. To maintain water balance of our body in this condition, kidney's reabsorb water from the urine which makes it less in quantity and more in concentration. But during winter season loss of water through sweating or perspiration is minimum and so more water is available for the formation of urine which makes the urine thin and more in quantity.

Biological statement 4:-Goiter disease is more prevalent in people living in Himalayan belt or people living in hilly regions.


Goiter is a disease caused through the swelling of thyroid gland present below our neck region. This disease is caused because of less secretion of thyroxine hormone by thyroid gland. The mineral iodine which we take through our diet play an important role in the synthesis of thyroxine by thyroid gland. In hilly regions crops will be grown on hilly slopes. During rainy season as water flows over the slope y soils the iodine mineral of the soil will be leached away. So the crops and vegetables grown in such soils lack iodine mineral. People living in such hilly regions due to lack of iodine content in their food get affected by goiter disease. But people living in sea belts or coastal areas do not face this problem since they get plenty of iodine through sea food.

Biological statement 5:-We use excess salt in the preparation of pickles and excess sugar in the preparation of jams and jellies


When we add lot of salt to the pickle there lot of concentrated salt solution will be there in the pickle. Generally the bacteria present in pickle or in any substance try to manipulate their number by using the food available around them. But as these bacteria are surrounded concentrated salt solution, through a phenomenon called ex-osmosis water from the bacterial cells leave out which makes them get plasmolysed (killed). Due to this their growth in the pickle get arrested and so the pickle gets preserved for long duration. Similarly the excess sugar added in jams jellies prevents the growth of bacteria in them and thus get preserved for long duration.

Biological statement 6:-Insulin hormone is injected into the body of a highly diabetic patient but not given orally


Insulin is a hormone secreted by pancreas gland of our body. This hormone converts the excess glucose present in our blood into glycogen which get stored in liver for future use. If our pancreas gland is unable synthesize this hormone, the glucose present in our blood will be carried to the kidney's through blood circulation and get excreted out along with urine. This defect is known as Diabetis mellitus or in our common language called it as sugar disease. To control this problem, doctors give fixed dose of insulin hormone according to the need of the patient to stop the elimination of glucose through urine. But insulin is chemically a protein hormone. If this hormone is taken orally it gets digested like other proteins in our stomach and cannot reach the place where it actually acts. But if it is given through the body, it will move along with the blood circulation without any change in its chemical nature and reach the target organ or the place where it actually works.


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